Culture in Comparative Perspective 2

Culture in Comparative Perspective 2 - October 23rd 2007...

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October 23 rd , 2007 Final Material 1) Modernization Theory (1960`s) – Compare this theory with dependency theory. This is the basis of many developmental projects. The roots of the problem will give you the solution to this problem. a) Arguments – Traditional conservative values Vs. Modern values, the difference between rich and poor. Various kinds of traditional values block economic development. To be modern the society has to be a capitalist economy, a market economy, these traditional values block this from happening so they do not develop and become poor. Land ownership is owned by descent groups, so the land markets cannot develop because of the traditional values. If you want economic growth to become modern you have to get rid or develop a land market. Levelling Practice`s do is stop people from accumulating wealth. b) Development Is A Technical Problem – The reason why a developed country is developed is because they have the resources to develop, unlike the poor countries that do not have these resources (technology, skills, ect). To become developed is a technical problem, means give a technical solution. 2) Ecuador Sheep Project - It was addressed at poor Indian villages that produced scrawny sheep that did not have meat, or wool. The project involved putting in a different breed of sheep. They found that the farmers refused the sheep, actually one man accepted the sheep. The refusal was interpreted that the people were afraid of change and this was blocking them. Is refusing the sheep an irrational response, no because the locals knew more about the land and the power of the local land owners then the men who brought the new sheep. The project failed because the project did not pay attention to local class and power relationships. 3) Green Revolution – is an application of the modernization theory. What causes hunger; it took a technical approach to hunger (not a lot of food). Technical solution is creating more food. 4) Dependency Theory (1960`s) – Arose out of a criticism to modernization, came from Latin America. They argued that modernization`s arguments are not the causes of underdevelopment. They differ because dependency theory is that with this theory you have to look at the whole globe, if you want to understand poverty start with the global economy. The basic argument: countries underdevelopment is created by its position of the global division of labour. Ecuador is poor because of its position in the total global
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economy. Serves the need of the core not the periphery. The position of the periphery is cheap labour, and cheap resources. The periphery in the dependency theory is exploited. 5) Relational Perspective – development and underdevelopment are related, not separated; one causes the other. Can be illustrated by understanding that development in the core creates underdevelopment in the periphery (Casual relationship). This is called dependency theory because the development of the core depends on the underdevelopment of the periphery. Relationship works over time because colonialism
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Culture in Comparative Perspective 2 - October 23rd 2007...

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