Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter Eleven Motives and Personality Basic...

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Chapter Eleven Motives and Personality Basic Concepts Personality psychologists interested in motivation look specifically for a desire or motive that propels people to do the things they do All theories examined will have two features in common o All view personality as consisting of a few general motives, which all people have or are capable of having o These motives may operate mainly through mental processes, either inside or outside of awareness, generating an intrapsychic influence on a person’s behavior Motives are internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects or goals o A motive is often caused by a deficit , a lack of something o Motives are often based on needs , states of tension within a person As a need is satisfied, the state of tension is reduced Example: the need to eat creates the motive of hunger and the motive of hunger causes a person to seek out food o Motives propel people to perceive, think, and act in specific ways that satisfy the need Some motives are not based on deficit needs, but rather are based on growth needs o Motives belong in the intrapsychic domain because of the internal psychological needs and urges o Motives can be unconscious Motive psychologists, like psychoanalysts, believe that fantasies, free associations, and responses to projective techniques reveal the unconscious motivation behind many thoughts, feelings, and behavior Motive psychologists share some core ideas with dispositional psychologists o People differ from one another in the type and strength of motives o These differences are measurable o These differences cause or are associated with important life outcomes o Differences between people in the relative amount of various motives are stable over time o Motives may provide one answer to the question “Why do people do what they do?” The motive approach can be thought of as a halfway point between intrapsychic domain and the dispositional domain One of the first researchers to develop a modern theory of motivation was Henry Murray Need The concept of need is very similar to the analytic concept of drive o A need is a potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances
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o Needs organize perception, guiding us to see what we want (or need) to see o A need also organizes action by compelling a person to do what is necessary to fulfill the need o Needs referred to states of tension Satisfying the need reduces the tension The process of reducing the tension, rather than the tensionless state, is satisfying Each need is associated with: o A specific desire or intention o A particular set of emotions o Specific action tendencies and each need can be described with trait names Murray believed that each person has a hierarchy of needs o An individual’s various needs can be thought of as existing at different levels of strength o Each need interacts with the various other needs within each person
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PPE 3003 taught by Professor Madsen during the Spring '06 term at FSU.

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Chapter 11 - Chapter Eleven Motives and Personality Basic...

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