10-19-2007 Bio 120 notes

10-19-2007 Bio 120 notes - G1 Rapid growth phase S Copy...

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10-19-2007 Important Terms Chromosome—protein and DNA (p.240) Sister chromatids—units of duplicated chromosomes. Centromere—region where chromatids connect. Kinechore—proteins associated with centromere. Mitosis—division of the nucleus. Cytokinesis—division of the cytoplasm. Haploid—one set of chromosomes. Diploid—two sets ofchromosomes. Centrosome—microtubule organizing center. Centriole—air of microtubule structures in the centrosome. Cell Division and the Cell Cycle Why do cells divide? To keep us alive. Where do cells divide? Everywhere. What is the end result of cell division? Two identical cells… same genetics, etc. Prokaryotes—Binary fission (Figure 12.11) Eukaryotes—Mitosis and cytokinesis (Figure 12.5) The Cell Cycle G0: non-dividing cell. Interphase:
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Unformatted text preview: G1: Rapid growth phase. S: Copy chromosomes/DNA synthesis. G2: Final preparations for divisions. Mitosis: Figure 12.6 Prophase: Each duplicated chromosome appears as two identical sister chromatids bound together. Prometaphase: Microtubules “invade” the nuclear area. Metaphase: Each chromosome lines up along the metaphase plate for separation preparation. Anaphase: Sister chromatids split to make daughter chromosomes. Telophase: Forming of the nuclear envelope. . Cytokinesis : Cleavage furrow: Animals. Cell wall: Plants. Control of the Cell Cycle Figure 12.14—Checkpoints in the cell cycle. Molecules of the cell cycle clock: Cyclin. Cdks—cyclin dependent kinases. Figure 12.16 Cancer Uncontrolled cell division. Figure 12.19...
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