chapter 2 notes - Chapter 2"Mitosis and Meiosis Genetic...

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Chapter 2 “Mitosis and Meiosis” Genetic continuity between cells and organisms of any sexually reproducing species is maintained by the processes of mitosis and meiosis. The processes are orderly and efficient, serving to produce diploid somatic cells and haploid gametes, respectively. It is during these division stages that the genetic material is condensed into discrete, visible structures called chromosomes. Topic Readings in Klug and Cummings “Mitosis and Meiosis” 2.1 Cell structure 18-20 2.2 Homologous chromosomes, haploidy and diploidy 20-22 2.3 Mitosis and cell division 22-26 2.4 Meiosis and gamete formation 26-29 2.5 Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis 29-30 2.6 Significance of meiosis to reproduction 30 2.7 Cytological nature of mitotic an meiotic chromosomes 32-33
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2.1 Cell Structure and Organization in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Genetic material differs among organisms (not in this chapter) 1. Eukaryotes- Higher organisms, having true nuclei and membranous organelles whose cells demonstrate mitosis and meiosis. Usually multi-cellular and having a more complex life cycle than prokaryotes. Examples: mammals, birds, fish, nematodes, etc Genetic material: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Located in cell structures Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplasts of plants only See Figure 2-1 2. Prokaryotes are organisms lacing a nuclear membrane, whose cells do not demonstrate mitosis and meiosis. Usually uni-cellular and having a less complex life cycle than eukaryotes. Examples: bacteria, blue green algae See Figure 2-2 Genetic material: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) . 3. Viral organisms- organisms lacking nuclear membranes, meiosis and mitosis. Usually have a simple life cycle, a single chromosome not enclosed in a membrane, and dependent on a host organism for reproduction. (See p 237 K&C) Examples: Influenza, chicken pox, tobacco mosaic virus Genetic material: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Single or double stranded Cell Structure and Organization in Eukaryotes Eukaryotes = Higher organisms, having true nuclei and membranous organelles whose cells demonstrate mitosis and meiosis. Usually multi-cellular and having a more complex
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