Psych Chapter 1


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PYSCHOLOGY NOTES FROM THE BOOK: CHAPTER 1: Psychology - comes from the Greek route Psychology meaning “soul” or “”Mind”… or logos meaning word. o The scientist study of the mind is the old definition but since you cannot observe the mind it is known as the systematic study of behavior and experience o Clinical Psychologist- help worried, depressed, or otherwise troubled people Deal with problems ranging from depression anxiety, substance abuse, to marriage conflicts, to difficulties making decisions Some are college professors and researches but most are full-time practitioners 6 themes of psychology: 1. ”It Depends”- health, age, sleep, anything 2. ”Research development depends on good measurement”- new technology, who measures a persons symptoms 3. “Correlation does not Indicate Causation”- Kind of a cause/affect relationship 4. “Variations among Individuals Reflect Both Heredity and Environment”- experience causes the differences 5. “The Best Predictor of Future Behavior IPs Past Behavior in Similar Situations”- consistency of how one acts 6. “Same Statements in Psychology Reflect Stronger Evidence than Others”- Such evidence and studies help to provide help towards diagnosing someone and finding out why they have certain problems. ..i.e. Alcohol, drugs, tobacco 3 Philosophical Issues in Psychology: o “Free Will Versus Determinism” o Determinism: the assumption everything that happens has a cause, or determinant, in the observable world. Scientific approach of psychology is that approach seeks the immediate causes of an event (what led to what) instead of the final or ultimate causes (the purpose of the event in an overall plan)
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The test of determinism is ultimately empirical: if everything we do has a cause, our behavior should be predictable The more knowledge a determinist knows about a patient the better chance they have predicting their behavior. Predictions of behavior could never become 100% accurate, even with complete information about the person and the situation Any person’s behavior could randomly change at any time and even tough cause and effect seems to work and be promising, it is an assumption not a certainty. o Free Will: The belief that behavior is caused by a person’s independent decisions is known as free will o “The Mind-Brain Problem” o Mind-Brain Problem- the philosophical question of how experience relates to the brain o Dualism- the mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body Dualism contradicts the law of conservation of matter and energy (the only way to influence any matter or energy in your body is to act on it with other matter or energy. The mind truly isn’t composed of matter or energy so that is why this theory is not believed by most brain researchers o Monism- the view that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain Means that maybe the mind is something the brain produces, or mind and
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 111 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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