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Chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11 Notes

Chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11 Notes - Chapters 8 9 Cognition...

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Chapters 8 & 9 Cognition and Intelligence Chapter 8 - Cognition Basic Terms Cognition: higher mental processes by which we understand the world, process  information, make judgments and decisions, and communicate knowledge to others PEOPLE ARE COGNITIVE MISERS Prototypes: ideal model Schema: framework that provides expectations about topics, events, people, objects and  situations. Problem Solving Algorithm: a rule that guarantees a solution Heuristic: a rule of thumb o Follow this guideline and it might put you on the right path Heuristics Generate and test: mentally generate and test every possible solution o – takes too much time Hill climbing: once you pick a solution or strategy you stick to it. o + consistent o – things change Sub-problems strategy: breaking a big problem into smaller sub-problems and solving  them in turn Working backwards: understanding what you want and working backwards to get to it Reasoning by Analogy: the problem solver uses knowledge about previous or similar  problems to find the answer to the current one. Changing the representation: looking at the problem differently Creativity Functional fixedness: the tendency to think of an object in terms of its most typical use Divergent thinking: generating unusual but appropriate responses to problems Convergent thinking: thinking that produces responses based on logic Brainstorming: coming up with as many ideas as possible in a group without criticizing  any idea Test of Creativity Ball, home, naval o Base Stream, goose, town o Down
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Dance, ladder, door o Stop Intuition Gut feeling Common errors o Representativeness: making wrong decisions because they seem to match pre- existing categories o Base rate errors: the underlying probability of the event is ignored Intelligence The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when  faced with challenges  History o China – used to measure performance in civil service o Galton Quantifiable – measured Normally distributed – Bell curve o Binet & Simon o Measuring intelligence: MA/CA X 100 = IQ Mental Age (MA): age children are answering questions at Chronological Age (CA): how old they actually are 10/10 X 100 = 100 12/10 X 100 = 120 Testing Achievement test: a person’s level of knowledge in a specific subject Aptitude test: predicts ability in a particular area Personality test: a person’s characteristics Standardization: procedures used in administration and scoring Norms: a score relative to others Reliability and Validity Reliability: consistency
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