Bio109FinalReview-1 - 1 Who[which groups and what are the...

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1. Who [which groups] and what are the Amniotes? Amniotes lay egg. The major group of chordates that include mamalia and reptalia. DO NOT INCLUDE AMPHIBIA. Includes monotremes(platypus), marsupials (kangaroos) and placental (humans). It allowed you to move onto land. Land animals. Birds also are included. 2. Who [which groups] and what are the Tetrapods? Tetrapoda are animals with four limbs. This includes amphibia(frogs, salamanders and caecilians) and the amniotes described above. Includes monotremes(platypus), marsupials (kangaroos) and placental (humans). Reptalia include Chelonia(turtles), Lepidosauria (lizards snakes) Archosauria (dinosaurs) croodylia and aves. 3. What groups are included in the Primates? Primates consist of lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans. [know the break down of homonoids, hominids, and primates in general] Humans are great apes- are closest are chimpanizees and bonobos 4. Who are our closest relatives among the primates? Our closest relative amongst the primates are chimpanzees and bonobos. We get our aggression from the chimps and our love from the bonobos. 5. What are the traits (physical and cultural in correct order) that are associated with human evolution. Would an Australopithecine share all these traits (if not, which ones would be). We started with bipedalism in the Australopothecines. The homo genus started out with a bigger brain than that of the Australopithecine before them. Homo ergaster had a larger brain that H. Habilis as well as reduced sexual dimorphism, showing pair bonding and parental care. Homo erectus spread out of Africa. Homo Sapien evolved in Africa and moved out. Stone tools arose 2 mya, fire 400,000, shelters 200,000, language 50-60,000, art 50,000, music 7.000, writing 5,000. 6. Know the major Biomes and be able to identify their correct order from pole to pole. The Biomes in order from North Pole to South Pole are: Polar ice, high mountains, tundra, coniferous forest, temperate broadleaf forest, temperate grassland, chaparral, desert, savanna, tropical forest, polar ice. 7. What outline of questions did Niko Tinbergen pose for ethologists? How is behavior controlled? How does behavior develop? What is the ecological role of behavior? How has behavior evolved? 8. Know the major events that happen during meiosis I [e.g. when do homologous chromosomes pair up]. Meiosis I- The data is replicates in the S phase prior to meiosis. During PROPHASE I homologous chromosomes pair up and spindle fibers begin to form. This is where crossing
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over takes place. METAPHASE I is when the the chromosomes become aligned alone the metaphase plate. ANAPHASE I is when the chromosomes are separated by the spindle fibers and this splits up the homologous pair. TELOPHASE I the nuclear envolope reforms and the cell is split into 2. 9. Know how sex linked traits are inherited and how this determines from whom a man versus a woman exhibiting the trait inherited it from.
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