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Unformatted text preview: 05/09/2007 17:58:00 September 5 Josephus Account of Joseph, Onias, and Ptolemy IV Late 200s BCE- Judea is a vassal state of Ptolemaic Egypt Onias II is the High Priest of Jerusalem, with nephew Joseph a rising Judean leader Ptolemy IV Philopator sends envoy Athenion to Jerusalem to demand tribute High Priesthood should be held by Aarons descendants, the Zadokites 217 BCE- Ptolemies defeat Seleucids in Battle of Raphia, keep Syria and Judea September 17 How can Josephus and 1 Maccabees be used as historical sources? Josephus is viewed as a traitor in most circles of Jewish scholarship, being branded as a plagiarist and wannabe Thucydides Claims descent from High Priest Jonathan, an extinct line of rule (priesthood claimed by descendants of brother Simon through 1 st century BCE) Not lower-class as evidenced by high level of education and writing ability Leader of the defense of Galilee during Jewish War of 1 st century AD; he later makes peace with Vespasian and becomes a useful ally, traveling to Rome itself Dealings with Vespasian indicate a quality of rhetorical sophistication and a desire to reconcile with Rome, thereby ending needless bloodshed According to Josephus, the primary cause of Jewish War was Stasis: conflict, disunity, political factionalism Possible reasons for writing Jewish Antiquities : guilt, glorification of the Hasmoneans, catering to Roman audience Romans are obsessed with upholding customs of their ancestors (Mos Maiorum) Josephus definition of liberty (the freedom to be justly controlled) sounds like the form of liberty enjoyed by subjects of the Roman Empire Jews can worship G-d and govern themselves on a local level as long as they pay taxes and provide troops to Rome September 19 Are There Universal Rules for Being a Good Hellenistic Monarch? Homer is the most quotable source for Greco-Roman monarchical theory To Nicocles was more likely read by a circle of academics all around the eastern Mediterranean than Nicocles himself; written in Classical Attic Greek rather than Koine, which was the most widely spoken Greek dialect in the West Pseudepigraphy: fake writing, not quite plagiarism but based on a previous author Isocrates does not say anything revolutionary (he is writing to the upper class elite) If your reputation is lousy, subjects and neighbors will not respect you Charisma in Classical Greece is defined through strength (battles won) Leaving a bad memory for successors can spell the end for a budding dynasty Kindness toward the people transforms a king into father, patriarch, protector No matter the form of government, every ruler needs some sort of consent Monarchs behave poorly because they are protecting themselves from exploitation and possible uprisings by brothers and sons Philoi: appointed friends of the ruler whose primary objective is to protect his interests (Alexander the Greats generals were all his good buddies)...
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