ANP-EXAM-1-STUDY-GUIDE

ANP-EXAM-1-STUDY-GUIDE - THE HUMAN BODY AN...

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THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION *Complementarity of form (Anatomy) and function (physiology) -Example ~ Red blood cells are small, flexible, and squished looking (structure), which is complementary to their function (being dynamic enough to travel through blood vessels) -Anatomy ~ involves the structure -Physiology ~ involved in function -Function that maintains homeostasis and balance -Homeostasis ~ keeping balance of a dynamic equilibrium (temperature, etc.) -Structural Organization 1) Chemical level ~ “smallest” (water is most abundant, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.) 2) Cellular level ~ all cells have similar function, some have specific functions (nerve cells conduct impulses, skin and muscle cells do other things) 3) Tissue Level ~ group of similar cells with common function 4 main: epithelial, connectiv0e, muscle (smooth, cardiac, skeletal), nervous -All organs we have are composed of the four main tissues 4) Organ Level ~ work together for function 5) Organ system ~ group of organs with common purpose -Some organs can be part of more than one organ system 6) Organism Level ~ completion of all the above Maintaining Life -Movement ~ muscular, skeletal system -There’s movement we don’t see (digestive system, skeletal) -Responsiveness ~ sense changes and respond (external, internal) *nervous system -Digestion ~ how we get our nutrients -Metabolism ~ catabolism, anabolism, cellular respiration (chemical reactions inside the cell) -Catabolism ~ “breaking down” nutrients (sugar) to its most simplest form -Anabolism ~ “building up” proteins from amino acids -Cellular Respiration ~ production of ATP -Excretion ~ removal of waste products (stuff we need we keep, stuff we don’t need we excrete) -Urinary system, lungs, skin, digestive system -Reproduction ~ mitosis, reproductive system (a whole new organism) -Cells we have duplicate themselves -Growth ~ constructive activities are greater than destructive activities Homeostasis -Maintain stable internal conditions -Pathway from receptors to control center ~ follows an “afferent path” -Afferent pathways involved in the sensory to the brain -Pathway from control center to effectors ~ follows an “efferent path” -Efferent paths correlate to some sort of motor response -Response after it passes the effectors”feedback”
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Ex: aorta in the heart looks for receptors of CO 2 -Receptors often tied to nervous system *Homeostatic imbalance unstable, disease, pathophysiology (the study of abnormal physiology which is pivotal) Feedback -Negative ~ output reduces/turns off the original effect of the stimulus *Far more common* -Example: CO 2 increases need to decrease it -Body temperature imbalance need to fix -Blood sugar levels blood glucose level have to do with negative feedback -Positive ~ response enhances the original stimulus *”Cascades”, very rare* -Example: blood clot formation stimulates many platelets to clog up a hole -Contractions during labor induces more contractions -Similar to the domino effect, keeps pushing on Language of Anatomy
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  • Spring '14
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