MCB 314 Neurons and Glia Lecture - Chapter 2 Neurons and...

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Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd edition, Bear Connors, Paradiso (2007) Chapter 2: Neurons and Glia
Introduction Neurons and Glia Neurons - ~10 11 (100 billion) in the human brain - the fundamental functional units of the nervous system Glia - ~10 12 in the human brain (10x more glial cells than neurons) - “glue” cells (Greek) - support, nourish neurons - electrically insulate axons (myelin)
Histology histology – microscopic study of biological tissues cytoarchitecture – how cells are arranged in different parts of the brain
Histology Nissl stain (named after Franz Nissl, anatomist, late 1800s) stains RNA stains nuclei of both neurons and glia fills entire cell body of neurons due to “Nissl bodies” - “Nissl bodies” turned out to be “rough endoplasmic reticulum” nuclei of glial cells Nissl bodies neurons
Histology Golgi stain (named after Camillo Golgi, anatomist, late 1800s) stains a small fraction of neurons in their entirety - stains the soma (cell body) as well as neurites (axons and dendrites) Golgi won the Nobel prize in 1906; shared with Ramón y Cajal
The Neuron Doctrine Santiago Ramón y Cajal (neuroanatomist, late 1800s) used Golgi stain technique to study neural circuits made highly detailed neuroanatomical drawings shared the Nobel Prize in 1906 with Golgi for their work on the structure of the nervous system
The Neuron Doctrine The Neuron Doctrine a viewpoint strongly promoted by Cajal neurons are the fundamental functional units of the nervous system neurons are individual, discrete cells - neurons do not form a continuous reticulum; a viewpoint favored by Golgi (reticular theory)

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