Group 3A Project For Genetics Biology-No images

Group 3A Project For Genetics Biology-No images -...

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Introduction: Drosophila Melanogaster is a fruit fly, distributed worldwide with the exception of extremes of altitude or latitude. Its claim to fames is that, for the last 100 years or so, it has been a favorite organism for biological research, initially in the field of genetics, but latter for the investigation of fundamental problems in biology from the fields of ecology to neurobiology 1 . Some of the reasons for its popularity: The flies are small and easily reared in the laboratory. They have a short life cycle. A new generation of adult flies can be produced every two weeks. They fecund; a female may lay hundreds of fertilized eggs during her brief life span 2 . Their physical appearance is wild type fruit flies are yellow-brown, with brick-red eyes and transverse black rings across the abdomen. They exhibit sexual dimorphism: females are about 2.5 millimeters (0.098 in) long; males are slightly with darker backs. Males are easily distinguished from females based on color differences, with a distinct black patch at the abdomen, less noticeable in recently emerged flies and sex combs. Also, males have a cluster of spiky hairs surrounding the reproducing parts used to attach to the female during mating 3. That is why, lots of scientists have an interest in the fruit fly is because they are small, well-known, they have short life cycle, cost-effective to work with and there is lots of research out there that shows how easy it is to handle the fruit flies. In 1910 Dr. Thomas Hunt Morgan published a paper entitled “Sex limited inheritance in Drosophila” from work done in his famous “fly room” at Columbia University. It was with Morgan’s work that Drosophila genetics began. Morgan and his students examined and isolated mutant fly lines and through their analysis provided evidence that genes are carried on Chromosomes and thus form the physical basis of heredity 4 . DNA sequencing of diseased tissue, patients and family members will probably lead to the identification of most gene variants associated with human disease over the next few years. Many will code for proteins of unknown function or scientist may have a clue of their function,
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but not know how they fit into the molecular networks that regulate cell physiology. This has been one of the key planks of Drosophila research methods over the past decades. They take a strain of Drosophila that carries a mutation in a given gene, and due to the ease of breeding experiments, combine it with mutations in thousands of different genes. In this way researchers
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