Physiological Perspective

Physiological Perspective - Physiological Perspective 1/14...

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Physiological Perspective 1/14 The Physiological Perspective physiological perspective – looks at how physiological mechanisms affect behavior, including abnormal behavior I. The Genetic Level A. Chromosomes - Primarily, 46 Chromosomes: 23 pairs in a cell – except sperm or egg cells which have 23 unpaired chromosomes. At fertilization, the 23 in the egg and 23 in the sperm combine to form the 23 pairs that will form the new human. 1) The 23 rd pair consists of the sex chromosome. Girls: have 2 X chromosomes b/c Mom only has X chromosomes – Dad provides the X or Y – if Dad provides an X – you get a girl – if Dad provides a Y – you get a boy. - Sex-linked characteristics: AKA X-linked b/c most occur on the X chromosome. 2) Chromosome Abnormalities: too many or too few chromosomes received at conception. Typically a error in chromosome division during meiosis - 1 in 200 is born w/ more (sometimes less) than the normal 46 EX/ Down Syndrome – 3 instead of 2 21 st chromosomes –
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Physiological Perspective 2/14 B. Twins 1) Identical twins: 1 in 250 births – 1 fertilized egg splits to form 2 (or more) genetically identical individuals. 2) Fraternal twins: 1 in 125 – 2 ova are released at the same time & fertilized by 2 different sperm. Same as regular sib’s. ON AVERAGE – share aprox. 50% of their genes. C. genes are sections along each chromosome that control individual development. They are composed of DNA and determine our hair and eye color, height and weight. Mendelian Inheritance – pair of genes for each trait Some genes are dominant b/c they exert evident effects even when someone is heterozygous (each gene in a pair is different) for that gene. Ex/ 1 blonde & 1 brown on a hair gene = most likely brown Dominant Genes include: brown eyes, dark hair, curly hair, normal vision, farsightedness, broad lips, double-jointedness, Types A & B blood, Huntington’s disease Some genes are recessive which shows only when both genes in the pair are the same (homozygous) Recessive Genes include: blue – green – hazel eyes, blonde & red hair, straight hair, nearsightedness, albinism, type O blood, normal joints, PKU, cystic-fibrosis
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Physiological Perspective 3/14 1) Polygenetic traits: generally several genes are responsible for many characteristics e.g. / height & weight; intelligence, temperament 2) Emergenic traits: these are the result of specific combinations of characteristics – BUT they won’t appear unless all of the elements are present. We can typically see these traits in identical twins D. Genes & psychopathology – although the genetic contribution to psychopathology may be an individual difference, there is STRONG evidence that genes are the root of many (most?) types of pathology. II. Neurocognition is the study b/w cognitive psychology &
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Physiological Perspective - Physiological Perspective 1/14...

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