Chapter Eight Notes

# Chapter Eight Notes - Chapter Eight Notes Problem Solving...

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Chapter Eight Notes Problem Solving Defined: Active efforts to discover what must be done to reach a goal that is not readily attainable. Types: - Problems of Inducing Structure : Person must discover the relations among the parts (series completion problems, analogy problems). - Problems of Arrangement : Person must arrange the parts to satisfy some criteria. Usually there are many arrangements but only a few solutions. ( string problem, anagram ). - Problems of Transformation : Person must carry out a sequence of transformations to reach the goal. ( Hobbits and orcs, water jar ). Barriers: - Irrelevant Information : Can lead people astray, often focus on numerical information. - Functional Fixedness : Tendency to perceive an item only in terms most commonly used. (i.e. using the screw driver as a weight) - Mental Set : When people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past. ( Abraham Luchins )- Experience often backfires and makes them think in a rut. - Unnecessary Constraints : Assuming that boundaries are there to deter you. -Insight : When people suddenly discover the correct solution to a problem after working on it for a while. Most scientist feel it is gradually reached. Approaches to Solving: - Trial and Error : Trying possible solutions until one works. - Heuristic : “Rule of thumb,” a mental shortcut used to solve problems or make decisions. i.e. forming subgoals (intermediate steps towards a solution), s earching for analogies (using clues from other problems to solve this one) and changing the structure . Availability Heuristic : Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind. (i.e. estimating divorce rate by recalling the number among your friends). Representativeness Heuristic : Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the prototype of that event. (The coin toss example). Often ignores the base rate (ignoring the average). People don’t apply the average to themselves.

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## Chapter Eight Notes - Chapter Eight Notes Problem Solving...

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