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Unformatted text preview: P102 Exam 1 Review Notes Important definitions and concepts Chapter 1 (Lectures 1 and 2)-Psychology: the scientific study of the mind and behavior.-Behavior: observable response and actions.- Mind: internal processes and states that cannot be observed directly, they must be inferred . - Basic science: the search for knowledge for its own sake.- Applied science: use knowledge to solve practical problems.- The five central goals of psychology: to describe, understand, predict, and influence behavior, as well as to apply psychological knowledge in order to improve human welfare.- The three-levels-of-analysis approach: events occur simultaneously at three levels of analysis the biological, psychological, and environmental. We should at the important variables at each level, and how these variables interact with one another. This approach shows that it is not nature vs. nurture, but instead it is the complex interaction between nature and nurture that is important to understanding human behavior.- Mind-body interactions: the relations between the mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily systems.- Mind-body dualism: the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity, and is not subject to the laws of the physical universe.- Structuralism: adherents to this school of thoughts attempted to identify the basic building blocks of the mind, usually through introspection. Wilhelm Wundt.- Functionalism: attempted to understand the functions of consciousness (i.e. the processes underlying our mental world). William James.- Psychodynamic approach: concentrates on internal factors, believing that unconscious conflicts (i.e. ones we are unaware of) are the most powerful determinates of our behavior and personality. Sigmund Freud.- Behaviorism: focuses on the influence of the external environment on action. To a behaviorist, everything is stimulus-response, and the goal of a good psychologist is to find the correct environmental stimuli to elicit the desired behavior. Mind does not enter into the equation from this perspective. John Watson and B.F. Skinner.- Humanism: focuses on the unique experience of the individual who strives to find meaning in their life.- Cognitive Psychology: Views the brain as an information-processor (i.e. some type of thing that performs computations). According to this approach, input enters the brain through our senses, this information is then processed, and some behavior is decided upon. - Cognitive neuroscience: this approach uses sophisticated imaging techniques (e.g. EEG, MRI, fMRI) to examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks.- Biological perspective: this approach believes that behaviors best explained by studying how the brain, biochemical processes, and genetic factors influence behavior. Behavioral neuroscientists examine the brain processes and other physiological functions (e.g. how neurons interact with one another) underlying our behavior. Behavioral geneticists explore the role of heredity in studying peoples behavioral our behavior....
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSYCH 102 taught by Professor Kimberlymcbride during the Spring '08 term at Indiana.
- Spring '08