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Pols 3065 Week 1 Political culture= values, representation of daily interactions, always use “race” in quotes, and racism as parts of political culture Political culture strongly affected by language used by government e.g. after Paris attack, harper uses “barbaric” to describe killings, but the same language isn’t usedin northern Pakistan when Canadian soldiers kill citizens of Pakistan, Political culture professor mcnally, lecture, date, to cite his lectures in assignments WEEK 2Main themes:1)nature, culture, & “ Bio-racism”2)race as ideology and social construction3) reification4)race craft & systematic racism 1stclaim: in terms of natural science, there is no such thing as race 2ndclaim: idea of races of humans is a recent invention, a couple hundred years old -for most of human history thought there was us, and then ppl who aren’t like us -meaning they didn’t live in the community, and spoke differently ( diff language)-this was how human societies tended to distinguish h who was insider and who was an outsider -ppl organized their thinking in terms of geography, and later as human society developed they thought about who was like them and different in terms of spiritual beliefs -these are differences that are socially acquired, what language one speaks isn’t in one’s genes but has to do with society that one grew up in -ppl distinguish themselves, but based on socially and culturally traits not on differences that were inherent or innate, bio-racism: comes into existence during 1700s, during a high moment of two social processes:a)take off in Atlantic slave trade: b)European colonization During these periods that we get a doctrine that says human beings are innately different by biology -Overwhelmingly bulk of modern science today agrees that bio-racism is nonsenseno scientific basis for distinguishing races from another-All human beings share 98.5% the same gene as chimpanzees, 1.5% difference in DNA-Differences in humans are so marginal, less than 1%, we are 99%+ identical-We are all Africans, human species almost certainly originated in Africa and then many years after moved out and populated other parts of earth, claim we can make -Mainstream media is highly guilty of talking about race as if its something real in natural world-Sometimes we do find proper scientific thinking reflected in media
-Concept of race is a social invention , appearance doesn’t tell one about genes, men and women who like black Africans , discover that genes are closer to white Europeans -Genes and skin colour don’t correlate -Race as defined by skin color and other physical featureshow most ppl define race -Race exist as a feature of social world, not physical world, SOCIAL INVENTION as a way of organizing social life and a way of organizing the oppression of some groups by other groups -Race is a social construction, exists because humans have created it, human societies create different kinds of social relationships -