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Anthropology Notes for Exam 2

Anthropology Notes for Exam 2 - Notes for Exam 2 I Human...

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Notes for Exam 2 3/10/08 I. Human Variation and Disease a. How does using an evolutionary perspective help us to understand human disease? b. How do you use an evolutionary perspective? c. Human disease ecology: Understanding the role of environmental systems d. Coevolution: Results from patterned interactions b/e 2 groups of organisms with close environmental relationships e. Disease Types i. Genetic diseases ii. Infectious diseases f. How does the genetic variation of human populations play a role in the mitigating the impacts of disease? g. Simple genetic diseases: those diseases resulting from variation within the human genome h. Sickle cell i. Recessive trait “s” where homozygous recessive individuals are affected by the disease known as sickle cell anemia ii. Results from a small mutation in DNA coding for hemogloblin iii. homozygote recessive condition that causes malformed red blood cells and hemoglobin iv. can lead to blood vessel blockage, organ damage, intense pain, and death v. often causes individuals with the disease to die at young ages i. Why is there such a high rate of sickle cell in certain populations?? i. Heterozygote Advantage 1. those individuals with a genotype of “Ss” appear to have some protection against malaria 2. P falciparum cannot attack sickle cells as effectively as normal red blood cells j. Which force(s) of evolution are at work in the sickle cell example? i. Mutation ii. natural selection k. What kind of selection is this? i. gene flow ii. genetic drift l. Other examples of Heterozygote Advantage i. Thalassemias (Malaria) ii. Tay-Sachs disease (Tuberculosis) m. Infectious disease and genetic systems i. types of diseases caused by viruses, fungi, protozoa, etc that can be transferred b/e individuals ii. disease ecology may have played a role in determining the
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distribution of certain traits in human populations iii. blood groups iv. immune system variations n. ABO blood system and infectious disease i. Type A: red blood cell surface proteins (phenotype) A agglutinogens only, plasma antibodies/phenotype: b agglutinin see graph online o. Infectious disease and blood type i. there is some evidence for selective mortality of certain diseases by blood type, why? ii. proteins made by the infectious agents can be intercepted more or less su (see blackboard) -cholera: type O blood has a greater risk of acquiring infection; infection more severe -syphilis: type O responds better to treatment, prevents the disease from reaching tertiary stage. Types A, B, AB more likely to have severe cases -plague: (aka black death- the antigen produced by the disease is very similar to that of an antigen produced by type O blood cells. Higher O mortality? -small pox: A and AB individuals are more likely to be infected if exposed, and more likely to die if infected -E coli: type O may be more susceptible and less able to fight off infection Additional topics of disease research -what kinds of diseases were prevalent during human evolution and what role did they play?
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Anthropology Notes for Exam 2 - Notes for Exam 2 I Human...

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