Psych notes chap 6-10

Psych notes chap 6-10 - Intro to Psych Notes Chapter 6...

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Intro to Psych Notes Chapter 6- Learning and Reward Learning: an enduring change in behavior that results from experience Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning: when two types of events go together Operant conditioning: when we learn that a behavior leads to a particular outcome Pavlov’s Experiments Conditioning trial The pairing of conditional stimulus with unconditioned stimulus Critical trial When the conditional stimulus is presented alone to test for conditional response Classical conditioning Occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Unconditioned Response (UR) Does not have to be learned, such as reflex (salivating) Unconditioned stimulus (US) Stimulus that elicits response without learning (food) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (bell) Conditioned Response (CR) Response that has been learned (Salivating) Acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery Acquisition Gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Contiguity Stimuli occur together in time Unlearn If associations are no longer adaptive. If bell is rung but food isn’t presented, then animal will stop salivating Extinction Process which conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous recovery Process which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus Will quickly fade unless CS is paired with US again Conditioned Response: Highest Lowest Acquisition extinction 1st spontaneous recovery 2 nd spontaneous recovery Generalization, Discrimination, and Second Order Conditioning Stimulus generalization Occurs when stimuli that are similar produces conditioned response (ex: a different type of bell) Stimulus discrimination Learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with US and other is not
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Phobias and Addictions Phobias and their treatment Acquired fear that is out of proportion to real threat (phobia) Classical: Develop through generalization of a fear experience (ex: stung by wasp but fear all insect) Fear conditioning- classically conditioned to fear neutral objects Counterconditioning: exposing people to small doses of feared stimulus while having them engage in pleasurable task Systematic desensitization: exposed to feared stimulus while relaxing. CS CR 1 (fear) connection can be broken by developing a new CS CR2 (relaxation) connection Drug addiction Conditioned drug effects are common (smell of coffee can be conditioned stimulus leading to feelings of arousal) Albert B. and JB Watson o Teaching infant to fear neutral object o Loud clanging noise associated with rat, rabbit, etc o US: smashing sound, UR: fear, CS: rat, CR: fear
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Psych notes chap 6-10 - Intro to Psych Notes Chapter 6...

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