Ch.6doc - Ch. 6: Attitudes What is an Attitude? A positive,...

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Ch. 6: Attitudes What is an Attitude? A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea. Figure 6.1: Four Possible Reactions to Attitude Objects How Attitudes Are Measured 0. Self-report measures 0. Attitude Scale : A multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude toward some object. 1. Bogus Pipeline : A phony lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthful answers to sensitive questions. 1. Covert measures 2. Facial Electromyograph (EMG): An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes. Figure 6.2: The Facial EMG: A Covert Measure of Attitudes? The Link Between Attitudes and Behavior 0. Is the assumption that attitudes influence behavior a valid one? 0. LaPiere’s (1934) provocative but flawed study. 1. Wicker’s (1969) conclusion that attitudes and behavior are only weakly correlated. 1. Kraus (1995): “Attitudes significantly and substantially predict future behavior.” Attitudes in Context 2. Attitudes correlate with behavior when the attitude measure closely matches the behavior in question. 2. There is a high level of correspondence or similarity between the two. 3. Attitudes are only one determinant of behavior. Figure 6.3: Theory of Planned Behavior Strength of the Attitude 4. The influence an attitude has on behavior depends in large part on the importance or strength of the attitude. 5. Why are some attitudes stronger than others? 3. Because of our genetic make-up? Psychological Factors Influencing Attitude Strength 6. Boninger et al. (1995) found that the most passionate attitudes were about issues that: 4. Directly affected one’s own outcomes and self-interests. 5. Related to deeply held philosophical, political, and religious values. 6. Were of concern to one’s close friends, family, and social in-groups. Factors That Indicate the Strength of an Attitude 2. How well informed is the person? 3. The more well informed, the more consistent the attitude is with the behavior.
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3. How was the information on which the attitude is based acquired? 4. Attitudes formed through direct personal experience are more stable and predictive of behavior than those based on indirect, secondhand information. 4. How accessible is the attitude to awareness? 5. Strong attitudes are quickly and easily brought to mind. 6. Situational factors can influence attitude awareness. Persuasion By Communication Two Routes to Persuasion 7. Petty & Cacioppo (1986): People do not always process communications in the same way. 7. Central route to persuasion
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Ch.6doc - Ch. 6: Attitudes What is an Attitude? A positive,...

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