Social_PsychCh.3_doc - Ch. 3: The Social Self The Role of...

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Ch. 3: The Social Self The Role of the “Self” 0. Self-reflection is necessary for us to be able to understand the motives, emotions, and causes of our behavior. 0. Our “inner” self. 1. How we manage ourselves is heavily influenced by the people around us. 1. Our “outer” self. The ABCs of the Self 0. Affect : How do we evaluate ourselves, enhance our self-images, and defend against threats to our self-esteem? 1. Behavior : How do we regulate our actions and present ourselves according to interpersonal demands? 2. Cognition : How do we come to know ourselves, develop a self-concept, and maintain a stable sense of identity? 0. Let’s start with this question! The Self-Concept 2. The self is an important object of our attention. 2. Cocktail party effect. 3. Self-Concept : The sum total of beliefs that people have about themselves. 4. Self-concept is made up of self-schemas . 3. Self-Schema : Beliefs about oneself that guide processing of self- relevant information. Beginnings of the Self-Concept 5. Except for human beings, only the great apes seem capable of self- recognition. 6. Self-recognition is an important first step in the development of a self- concept. 4. Indicates a concept of “me.” Role of Social Factors in Development of a Self-Concept 7. Charles Horton Cooley’s (1902) “looking-glass self.” 5. Other people serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves. 8. George Herbert Mead (1934) 6. Added that we come to know ourselves by imagining what significant others think of us. 7. These perceptions are then incorporated into our self-concept. Where Does Our Self-Concept Come From? 9. Our self-concepts match our perceptions of what others think of us. 8. BUT these perceptions often do not match what specific others ACTUALLY think of us. 10. So let’s look at five sources that influence the development of our self- concept. Source #1 : Introspection
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11. Self-knowledge through self-study? 12. But does introspection always lead to accurate self-knowledge? 13. Wilson (1985): Introspection can sometimes impair self-knowledge! 14. Accuracy of self-knowledge depends on the match between what we focus on and what caused behavior in question. 9. For cognitively driven behaviors, it is better to focus on the reasons for the behavior. 10. For affectively determined behaviors, it is more valuable to focus on one’s feelings. Affective Forecasting 15. Affective Forecasting : The process of projecting forward and predicting how one would feel in response to future emotional events. 11. People often have difficulty doing this. 16. People tend to overestimate the duration of their emotional reactions. 12. “Durability bias.” Possible Reasons for the Durability Bias 17. For negative events, we do not fully appreciate our psychological coping mechanisms. 18. We focus only on the emotional impact of a single event, overlooking the
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Social_PsychCh.3_doc - Ch. 3: The Social Self The Role of...

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