Social_PsychCh5

Social_PsychCh5 - Ch. 5: Perceiving Groups What Is a Group?...

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Ch. 5: Perceiving Groups What Is a Group? 0. Group : Two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics: 0. Direct interactions with each other over a period of time. 1. Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes. 2. A shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals. 1. We see people in fundamentally different ways if we consider them to compose a group rather than a simple aggregate of individuals. Defining Important Terms 0. Stereotypes : Beliefs that associate a whole group of people with certain traits. 1. Prejudice : Negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social group. 2. Discrimination : Negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group. Figure 5.1: Perceiving Groups: Three Reactions Stereotypes One Path to Discrimination Differing Perspectives on How Stereotypes Form 3. Historical Perspective : Stereotypes spring from past events. 4. Political Perspective : Stereotypes are the means by which groups in power come to rationalize war, religious intolerance, and economic oppression. 5. Sociocultural Perspective : Real differences between social groups contribute to perceived differences. Social Psychology’s Perspective 6. Regardless of how stereotypes are born within a culture, how do they grow and operate in the minds of individuals? 7. Formation of stereotypes involves two related processes: 0. The categorization of people into groups. 1. Our perception that the in-group is different from the out-group. Social Categorization 2. Social Categorization : The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes. 3. In some ways, a natural and adaptive process. 4. Helps us form impressions quickly and use past experiences to guide new interactions. 3. Serious drawback: By categorizing people, we often: 5. Overestimate the differences between groups; and 6. Underestimate the differences within groups. In-groups vs. Out-groups
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8. When categorizing people we have a strong tendency to divide people into two groups: 2. Ingroups , which are groups we identify with. 3. Outgroups , which are groups other than our own. 9. Out-group Homogeneity Effect : The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of out-groups than among members of in-groups. Why Are Out-groups Seen As Homogeneous? 10. We often do not notice subtle differences among out-groups because we have little personal contact with them. 11. We often do not encounter a representative sample of out-group members. Sociocultural Factors 12. Why are some categorizations more likely to dominate our perceptions than others? 13. Our categorizations can be influenced by: 4. The portrayal of people in the media. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYC 314 taught by Professor Frieden during the Spring '08 term at William & Mary.

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Social_PsychCh5 - Ch. 5: Perceiving Groups What Is a Group?...

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