CHAPTER 8 - CHAPTER 8 PERSONALITY Psychodynamic Perspective...

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CHAPTER 8: PERSONALITY Psychodynamic Perspective o The psychodynamic perspective emphasizes the ways in which unconscious motives and impulses express themselves in people’s personalities and behaviours o According to Freud, the major tasks of personality development are completed by the time a child is 5 years of age. Some changes may continue throughout adolescence, but an individual’s psychological development is officially over by adulthood o According to Freud, adults are incapable of change in terms of personality. However, contemporary followers of Freudian thinking share his emphasis on early development but do not share the pessimistic view that adults are incapable of change o Psychodynamic theory is categorized in three branches: <- DO NOT NEED TO KNOW Ego Psychology o According to Freud’s theory, the mind is made up of 3 structures: Id: individual’s biological instincts such as need for food, sex and water. Also includes need to hurt, kill, and exert power over others Ego: part of the mind that controls rational thought, which negotiates a way for people to meet their biological needs without putting themselves at risk of violating society’s expectations of falling short of their ideals Superego: attempts to control the id’s irrational instincts, by imparting society’s moral standards(the conscience) and by providing the individual with an image of goodness to which the individual can aspire(ideal self) o Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development proposes that it is ego that matures throughout life as the individual faces biological, psychological and social forces o Each stage in the ego development is defined as a push and pull that leads the individual toward a favourable outcome or unfavourable outcome. o Each stage unfolds in a predetermined order o Although the theory says that certain issues are most likely to arise at particular ages, earlier/later issues may arise in different points of life o Of all the stages in Erikson’s theory, Identity and Generativity receive the greatest attention Identity According to James Marcia, she developed an identity status interview, which examines the degree of the individual’s commitment to identity issues and the degree of exploration the individual used to arrive at this commitment She also elaborated on the connection between personalities and behavioural profiles of emerging adults in each of the identity statuses 1) Achievement: strong commitments following a period of exploration -tend to be balanced in their thinking, mature in their relationships to others and thoughtful about their life options 2) Foreclosed: strong commitments without a period of exploration -tend to be high in self-esteem but are also closed-minded and rigid 3) Moratorium: actively exploring different commitments -tend to be open, curious, on the positive side, but also anxious, depressed and low in self-esteem 4) Identity Diffuse: no strong commitments with or without a period of exploration
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