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Final Exam study sheet EASCIDS: 5 points each, 30 points total. 12 of the following terms will appear on the final. You will need to identify and explain the significance of 6 of them.Terms:1.work unit (danwei)The place of employment for urban Chinese in Communist China before Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms. Workers were bound to their work units—which provided housing, child care,schools, and other services. Now, it is used in various state-run enterprises. 2.floating population (liudong renkou)This refers to the migrants in China who don’t have the local household registration status of an urban person but who work in urban cities. The rural-urban migration is the largest in human history—and since 1979, the migration has increased dramatically. 3.one-child policyA population-control policy in the PRC adopted in 1979. Although it is enforced well in urban areas, it is not enforced as strictly in rural areas—where there is much preference for a son. This increases the gender ratio since many rural couples will have a second child if they have a girl forthe first child. 4.Special Economic ZoneSince the 1970s, the PRC has formed Special Economic Zones to facilitate trade and foreign investment. The SEZs are more free market oriented and are attractive to business and foreign capital. 5.Township Village EnterpriseThese are enterprises owned by townships and villages in the PRC’s rural areas. They experienced expansion in the 1980s due to cheap labor but were later not as successful. 6.State Owned EnterpriseIn 1949, all businesses were owned by the PRC, but in the 1980s, the government started to reform its state-owned enterprises and privatized many small and mid-sized enterprises. 7.Tanzam (Tanzara) RailroadThis is a railroad in Africa linking Tanzania to Zambia which was financed by China and built in the 1970s. It is the longest railway (2000km) in sub-Saharan Africa and the largest foreign-aid project by China. This railroad eliminated the need for Zambia to transport copper through Zimbabwe and South Africa—which were ruled by white-minority governments. 8.Senkaku/Diaoyu IslandsA group of uninhabited islands that are contested by Japan, the PRC and Taiwan. After WWII, theUS controlled the islands, but gave the islands to Japan in 1972, though both China and Taiwan declared ownership. In 2012, the Japanese government nationalized the islands. 9.Spratly IslandsThese are islands disputed between the PRC, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, and the Philippines. These have gas and oil reserves and is used for fishing. China has started drilling for oil—which caused a conflict with Vietnam. Chinese fishermen also heightened tensions with the Philippines. 10.Darfur War
Beginning in 2003, this was a civil war in Sudan that is still ongoing with numerous human rights violations. The PRC—along with Russia—was supplying arms and ammunition to Sudan—which violated the UN arms embargo. Since Sudan has oil, China has a good relationship with it.