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Bio 101 - Lecture 12

Bio 101 - Lecture 12 - The Human Genome Project Other Boxes...

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1 The Human Genome Project, Other Boxes of Pandora, and Frankenfoods Fighting Disease: Genetic Pedigrees Answer to: How is it inherited? Fighting Disease: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Epidemiology Answers to: What part of the body is affected? How is it transmitted? What drugs might work? The next questions: What is the genetic basis for susceptibility? How can it be treated or prevented? The Human Genome Project goals: 1990-2003 Identify all genes in human genome Determine DNA sequence of each gene Store information in public access databases Developed improved tools for database analysis Transfer technology to private sector Address social, legal, and ethical issues that arise Mileposts/status 12/99: first chromosome completed (#21) April 14, 2003 Entire genome completed 3.2 billion base pairs contains 30,000 to 40,000 genes 97% of human DNA is non- coding; doesn’t translate into proteins
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2 Long-term benefits (we hope): Safer, more effective drugs: Drugs designed to one’s genotype to give maximum effectiveness and minimum side effects/risk Genetic testing for disease risk/susceptibility Improved control of gene expression in cell cultures: Cloning of tissues, organs for transplantation Long-term benefits (we hope): Improved DNA testing More reliable tests for paternity, legal cases, anthropological research Gene therapy for diseases •Gene therapy: Transfer of one or more normal or modified genes into an individual’s body cells to fix a defect or boost disease resistance •Deliver cells that carry recombinant DNA into a patient’s tissues or uses viruses as vectors to inject genes into a person’s cells •Gene therapy can alleviate symptoms Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) • Results from mutations in a specific gene • Affected children can only survive in germ-free isolation tents • Viral vector used to insert unmutated gene into bone marrow cells • 11 boys given gene therapy; 10 left isolation tents for good • Problem: 3 developed leukemia One method for gene therapy: Use retrovirus as vector to transfer genes to human cells Tissue culture Issues of concern Protection of information against misuse
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