Lecture9_Ideal_Gas

Lecture9_Ideal_Gas - EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental...

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EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental Sciences Class 10 - Ideal Gas Law, Barometric Law In this class we begin a discussion of atmospheric dynamics and its role in determining the climate. Atmospheric dynamics focuses on the motion of air and the resultant weather and climatic phenomena . In the last section on the energy budget, the First Law of Thermodynamics underpinned our discussion. In this section we call on: (i) the kinetic theory of gases ; and (ii) Newton’s Second Law (i. e., F = ma). Today we will begin by showing why we need to worry about atmospheric dynamics’ role in the climate , and then we will review some basic concepts about the nature of a gas and the properties of atmospheric gases under the influence of a gravitational field. We need to consider dynamics because -- An inspection of the radiative energy balance of the earth as a function of latitude indicates an imbalance. There is an energy excess in the tropics and a deficit at high latitudes . Maybe dynamic processes (e.g., winds, etc) move energy from tropics to poles and thus create a balance at all latitudes. ..
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An ideal gas is -- a gas that obeys the ideal gas law which is a mathematical relationship that governs the gas’ so-called ‘state variables’: ¾ Temperature ¾ Pressure ¾ Density Temperature ¾ A measure of the amount of internal energy (or heat) a substance contains. ¾ The energy is indicated by the random movement of the molecules that make up the substance. ¾ The more energy contained in a substance, the greater the velocity of the molecules, and in turn the greater the temperature. ¾ Temperature is a macroscopic measure of the average kinetic energy contained in the molecules of a given substance ¾ {Avg KE} = ½ m v avg 2 = k B T ¾ Where v avg = average random molecular velocity k B = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K/molecule m = mass of a molecule of the substance = M
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Lecture9_Ideal_Gas - EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental...

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