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Unformatted text preview: EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental Sciences ____________________________ Class 25 - The Biosphere: Part 1 The Biosphere As An Organic Compound ________________________________ We have now completed an initial investigation into the abiotic parts of the Earth System. Now lets take look at the living part... What do we mean by the biosphere? Although there may be problems in agreeing on a close definition of 'biosphere', that is not important. What is important is that there is widespread acceptance of the set of ideas conveyed by the term. The idea of living organisms as functional entities, processing energy and matter, reproducing, interacting with each other and with the physical environment ; and the idea that the entire biota, together with its physical environment, can be regarded as a single system. " (Ian Bradbury, The Biosphere, Belhaven Press, 1991) For different people, the word biosphere means different things ... 1. Biosphere = Gaia Some scientists use the word biosphere to denote what we have used the term Gaia to signify: The entire coupled system involving the atmosphere, ocean, lithosphere (and solid earth), as well as living systems . This is the definition adopted by individuals interested in the new area of study referred to as Biospherics (see page on Biospherics) On the other hand there is Lovelocks statement that ... The name of the living planet ... (is) Gaia ... (it) ... is not a synonym of the biosphere. Biosphere can means different things ... 2. Biosphere = all living organisms In this definition the biosphere is: ... defined as that part of the earth in which life exists. (E. Hutchinson, in The Biosphere , W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, pp 1 -12, 1970.) (But see excerpt from Hutchinson) 3. Biosphere = all organic C In this definition the biosphere is: defined as all living organisms and the remains of dead organisms that have not been re-mineralized to form inorganic compounds. This is the definition often adopted by scientists interested in biogeochemical cycles since the important chemical transformation in these cycles is the conversion of elements between their organic and inorganic forms. (Why do you suppose that is?) This is the working definition we will use . Biospherics as a scientific discipline: Biospheric science, is the largest scale possible to study within the life sciences, differing from systems ecology in that it deals with basically materially closed systems and thus complete cycling . Biospheres, as a class of objects to study, are defined as an energetically open, materially closed life systems, natural or artificial, capable of long term self-renewal under the proper conditions ....
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course EAS 1600 taught by Professor Jimstjohn during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.
- Spring '08