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01 Four Areas of Phi - 5 Aristotle’s logic was the...

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Areas in Philosophy 1. Logic - the art and science of correct reasoning - teaches how to think with precision, to organize thinking, prevent mistakes in reasoning - a fallacy is a mistake in reasoning - Development of Logic i. Aristotle founded logic as a field of study 1. (384-322 BCE) wrote 5 essays called “The Organon” 2. deductive logic; syllogism is a type of deductive reasoning. For e.g., All men are mortal. Socrates is a man . Therefore, Socrates is mortal. 3. Middle term (man) drops out 4. Valid and invalid are terms used for deductive reasoning only. Inductive reasoning is described as either strong or weak arguments.
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Unformatted text preview: 5. Aristotle’s logic was the reigning logic until 1850’s. ii. Charles Peirce (“Purse”) – Cambridge, Mass. – looking for a more powerful form of logic. WWI English Phi-ers Bertrand Russell & Alfred North Whitehead collaborate to show that all of math – the whole – is based on elementary logic. Thus, developed sentence / propositional calculus. 2. Metaphysics-The theory of the general nature of reality. What is real? The science of Being qua Being. 3. Epistemology 4. Axiology (value theory)...
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