02 4 Historical Periods - I II III Ancient Period(600 B.C...

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I. Ancient Period (600 B.C. – 410/529 A.D.) a. The Pre-Socratics b. Socrates & the Sophists c. Plato & the Academy (School in Apollo Academus) i. First place of institutionalized higher education ii. The arch above the path was made in stone; carving stated, “Let no person ignorant of mathematics enter here.” d. Aristotle & the Lyceum i. Aristotle was a student of Plato for 20 years ii. He tutored Alexander the great e. Post-Aristotlean Schools – Each was searching with the best way to lead the good life. Death of Alexander the Great brought about a time of chaos during which people lost faith with institutions & religion; thus people looked for personal salvation – a messiah, a pharaoh, the goddess Fortuna (fortune), etc. were all looked for – these schools i. Epicurean school 1. the best way to achieve the good life is through spiritual pleasure – good conversations, science, philosophy, etc. ii. Stoic school 1. good life is best achieved by self-mastery, self-control 2. You can’t control what happens to you – so control of self is best – you can control your attitude and emotions toward the outer circumstances iii. Cynic school 1. Follow animal impulses and live like dogs iv. Skeptical school 1. Don’t worry about knowledge, and you’ll have peace of mind. We can’t know anything. v. Others II. Medieval Period (410/529 A.D. – Late 1400s) – Philosophy becomes the handmaiden of religion. Medieval philosophers are concerned with properly, correctly interpreting some particular religion (depending on the religion of the philosopher). Interpretation of religion (faith, will of God, etc.), defense, and development. a. St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas (official Philosopher of the Roman Catholic Church) for Christianity b. Philo of Alexandria for Judaism – one of the first to use the allegorical method of interpreting
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