This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: HUMANITIES I FINAL REVIEW Chapter 7- China Confucius and the Classics ~Zhou dynasty began to disintegrate 771 B.C.E. During that time: *trade and urban life flourished *China developed most significant and lasting material and philosophic traditions Word li means prosperity, ritual, and arrangement. It is the proper performance of traditional Chinese rites, principles of governing appropriate behavior, or action in conformity with the rules of decorum and propriety. Confucius (Kong-fuzi 551-479 BCE) ~Chinas most notable thinker and compiler of Five Chinese Classics (The Book of Changes, History, Songs, Rites, and The Spring and Autumn Annals) ~All his teachings, like Socrates, were transcribed after his death. He wrote nothing. These writings were known as Analects , which center on questions of conduct. He taught the importance of tradition and the exercise of li. He had little to say about the Gods. ~Formulated Golden Rule what you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others. ~his teachings preserved social and political ideas of Shang and Zhou dynasties ~the ruler was the parent. Moral and political lives were one. Moral harmony was the root of political harmony, and moral rectitude made government all but unnecessary. Mencius ( 372 289 BCE) was Chinas most significant voice after Confucius. He held that human beings are born good; they fall into evil only by neglect or abuse. He envisioned the state as an agent for cultivating the goodness of the individual. Legalists- described nature of humankind as inherently evil. They concluded that the best state was one in which rulers held absolute authority to uphold strict laws and dole out punishment to violators. Leading Legalists Han Fei Zi who believed an adult is no more reliable than an infant. ~Legalism of Han Fei became fundamental philosophy of Chinas first empire. Qin dynasty (221-206 BCE) - survived only 15 yrs ~First great period of unity ~In 221 BCE Kind Zheng conquered all other rival states and unified them under his rule. He declared himself first emperor and set about eliminating other possible conflict. ~replaced old land based aristocracy with new imperial government centered on capital Xianyang organized into network of provinces and districts governed by non- hereditary officials they enforced laws, collected taxes, and drafted men to defend new regions. New Government under Qin Rule: standardized written language created uniform coinage as well as system of weights and measures divided China into provinces standardized width of axles speeding travel and trade ~silk industry attracted merchants and brought wealth to China ~Qin commissioned the construction of the 1500 mile long Great Wall of China *required 700,000 people ~an equal # of people labored for 11 years on the Emperors tomb, a 21 square mile burial site *it contained 8000 life-size soldiers that held actual swords, spears, and crossbows there faces (no 2 alike) were intended for the dead...
View Full Document