chapter13 - CHAPTER 13 Nuclear Interactions and...

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n 13.1 Nuclear Reactions n 13.2 Reaction Kinematics n 13.3 Reaction Mechanisms n 13.4 Fission n 13.5 Fission Reactors n 13.6 Fusion n 13.7 Special Applications CHAPTER 13 Nuclear Interactions and Applications Ernest Lawrence, upon hearing the first self-sustaining chain reaction would be developed at the University of Chicago in 1942 rather than at his University of California, Berkeley lab said, “You’ll never get the chain reaction going here. The whole tempo of the University of Chicago is too slow.” - Quoted by Arthur Compton in Atomic Quest
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Click to edit Master subtitle style 13.1: Nuclear Reactions n First nuclear reaction was a nitrogen target bombarded with alpha particles, which emitted protons. The reaction is written as: n The first particle is the projectile and the second is the nitrogen target. These two nuclei react to form proton projectiles and the residual oxygen target. n The reaction can be rewritten in shorthand as: 14N( α , p )17O. In general a reaction x + X y + Y can be rewritten as X ( x , y ) Y
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Click to edit Master subtitle style 3 Important Technological Advances n The high-voltage multiplier circuit was developed in 1932 by J.D. Cockcroft and E.T.S. Walton. This compact circuit produces high-voltage, low-current pulses. High voltage is required to accelerate charged particles. n The Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was developed in 1931. It produces a high voltage from the friction between two different materials. 3) The first cyclotron (at left) was built in 1932. It accelerated charged particles using large circular magnets.
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Types of Reactions n Nuclear photodisintegration is the initiation of a nuclear reaction by a photon. n Neutron or proton radioactive capture occurs when the nucleon is absorbed by the target nucleus, with energy and momentum conserved by gamma ray emission. n The projectile and the target are said to be in the entrance channel of a nuclear reaction. The reaction products are in the exit channel. n In elastic scattering , the entrance and exit channels are identical and the particles in the exit channels are not in excited states. n In inelastic scattering , the entrance and exit channels are also identical but one or more of the reaction products is left in an excited state. n The reaction product need not always be in the exit channel.
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13.3: Reaction Mechanisms The Compound Nucleus n For low energies of E < 10 MeV, the Coulomb force dominates the reaction. This is described by the compound nucleus. n The compound nucleus is a composite of the projectile and target nuclei, usually in a high state of excitation. n The kinetic energy available in the center of mass frame can excite the compound nucleus to even higher excitation energies than that from just the masses. n
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PHYS 225a taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '97 term at Vanderbilt.

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chapter13 - CHAPTER 13 Nuclear Interactions and...

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