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ReconstructionI.Union Victory Constants in the American Dreama.1. Self improvementb.2. Racial minorities have less access then white men Slaveryc.Slavery survived because the early American economy was dependent on it. The Birth of the nations capitalist economy was a burden carriedon the backs of black slaves d.Ignored black voters Reconstructione.1860s- blacks were given rights of citizenship, just for them to be taken awayA. The “Great Emancipator”- Abraham LincolnSelf-taught lawyer, skilled orator, and an ambitious, tactful Illinois politician, pragmatist(not a saint) Republican, supported ambition1858- became famous. Debates against Douglas. Lincoln engaged in racial politics. Racist to gain political support. Cuts both ways on slavery debate Emancipation Proclamation- not how presidency began Peace with confederatesPromised South- He wouldn’t aloud slavery to expand, but allow it in the South1863- Emancipate slaves, aloud blacks to serve in union army (lesspay & not promoted) and gain citizenship Doesn’t care that slavery isn’t moral B. “Forty Acres and a Mule” oGeneral ShermanIn 1864 and 1965, general William T. Sherman, and architect of modern “total war”, produced essential Union victories in the southeastern Confederacy. Sherman’s Special Field Order No. 15, which provided 40-acre plots and mules, was an early wartime template for postwar Reconstruction. Blacks were defined as property not humansBlacks received freedom, but second hand citizens C. Freed Slaves’ Aspirations & Southern White Expectations 260,000 men died fighting for the Confederacy or 1/5 of the Souths adult male populationSome families in the South lost entire life savingDestruction of animal, farm buildings, etc.
Sherman’s famous, or notorious, “March to Sea” at the end of the civil war survived by pillaging isolated plantations and left southern cities in ruinsSouth lost war, southern economy was ruined after civil war lostII. Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67)- Driven by Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson (Lincolns vice president) Johnson (Southern Democrat), only southern senator who remained in office after secession Wasn’t supposed to be president