pols - oct 1 - The Republic to the Liberal Republic History...

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The Republic to the Liberal Republic History a[nd Ideas Reading Notes: “governments have never learned anything from history, or acted on principles deducted from it” – Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegek - it is easy to overlook contribution of history knowledge bring to political studies - “those who cannot remember, condemned to repeat it” - no time to get into the depth of history - argument of students : history offends our contemporary modern values - women, aboriginals, people of colour, are missing in histories soundtrack - like philosophy and literature, much of political history is the record of DWEMs (dead, white European males) - J.M Roberts – principal theme in human history in the last 2000 years rise and fall of Western Europes world domination - Political models and principles by European culture were transferred tp most nations, regardless of their unique religious or cultural traditions - Political History, divided into 3 periods : - Classical antiquity - Medieval age - Modernity Classical Antiquity - Ancient Greece, Rome - Good education needed to study latin or greek - “democracy” “monarchy” “dictatorship” “republic” “citizen” “senate” “council” “politics” - Politics in this period were local or global - Political unit was the city state - Possible for politics to be highly participatory - In the empire it wasn’t - Empires could grow a lot because the focus was military security not public or political good for the population - Nation-states could not emerge in western Europe until the end of the feudal period - Sheer diversity of political organizations and types of government - Primary theme was “what is the best form of state” - Related issues: stability, legitimacy, obiligation Plato and Aristotle - the city-states in this period were agrarian, pre-industrial societies, dependent on the explitation of slaves - Athens was a democracy, decisions were made by an assembly of all citizens, A council of 500
- - Plato and Aristotle both rejected democracy, Aristotle rejected it more - Principle theme of plato: how the people are to be ruled - Human soul has three parts; - Rational - Spirited/courageous - Appetitive - Rational part rules the appetitive part (mind over body, intellect over senses), with the aid of the spitited part - The city : The guardians (the rational class) deliberate without the city, assisted by the Auxiliaries (the spirited class), courageous warriors who preserve the city from external foes and internal dissension - Largest class Artisans citizens concerned with the mundane business of acquiring wealth -

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