Exam 3 study guide (filled out)

Exam 3 study guide (filled out) - I. Know and be able to...

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I. Know and be able to apply these learning terms Classical conditioning :know definition and given an example, be able to apply the following terms: Classical conditioning: process of behaviorism in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli. Behaviorism: studying behavior without reference to mental process Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that automatically and naturally triggers a response (unlearned) EX: food in mouth, passionate kissing Unconditioned response (UCR): Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus. EX: salvation response, arousal Conditioned stimulus (CS): originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response (learned) EX: tone, onion breath Conditioned response (CR): learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (learned) EX: salvation to tone, sexual arousal The five processes of conditioning (recall that these apply to both classical and operant conditioning) 1. Acquisition: The initial stage in classical conditioning. The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. (works best is CS + UCS are close in time—about .5 seconds apart) In operant conditioning: the strengthening of a reinforced response 2. Extinction: diminishing of a conditioned response (CR)- dog will eventually stop salivating to tone if you sound tone over and over, and don’t provide food In operant conditioning: occurs when a response is not longer reinforced 3. Spontaneous Recovery: Reappearance of an extinguished CR after a rest period (wait a little… sound tone. Will salivate again a little) 4. Generalization: similar stimuli may elicit responses (use similar tone dog still salivates; children who are told to fear cars in the street also fear trucks and motorcycles; man still recoils when he sees black shoes because when he was tortured, the first thing he saw right before he was tortured was his torturer’s black shoes) 5. Discrimination : learned ability to distinguish between CS and other irrelevant stimuli (dog learns to respond to the sound of a particular tone but not to other tones that are clearly different) Reinforcement & punishment - know definitions, types (positive and negative), and be able to differentiate between them primary reinforces Reinforcement: any consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior -primary reinforcements satisfy a biological need EX: food -secondary reinforcement gain power through association with primary reinforce EX: money, good grades Reinforcement is divided into two groups 1. Positive Reinforcement: Increases behavior by presenting a pleasurable stimulus after a response (adding something) EX: you study b/c u want an A 2. Negative Reinforcement: Increased behavior by removing an adversive (unpleasant) stimulus after a response (taking something away) –removing an adverse stimulus increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated. NOTE : Negative reinforcement is NOT punishment. Rather, it REMOVES a punishing adverse event.
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EX: taking Advil to relieve a headache. Snoozing an alarm. Dragging on a cigarette to reduce a
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Exam 3 study guide (filled out) - I. Know and be able to...

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