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Exam 4 Study Guide (filled out)

Exam 4 Study Guide (filled out) - Final Exam Study Guide...

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Final Exam Study Guide Emotion: a response of the while organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious experience James-Lange theory: the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Cannon-Bard theory: the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory: Schachter-Singer’s theory that to experience emotion one must be physically around and cognitively label the arousal Spillover: sometimes our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event Catharsis: emotional release; in psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel good, do good phenomenon: people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood There are 10 basic emotions that can be divided into two basic types, positive and negative emotions Theories of Emotion James-Lange: emotional experience stems from the physiological sensations that are triggered by emotion-arousing stimuli; emotions are your interpretation of a biological response; perceived event physiological and behavioral responses emotional experience Cannon-Bard: emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and emotional experiences; emotion and physiological response occur simultaneously; perceived event leads to physiological and behavioral responses and emotional experience simultaneously Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division: arousal Parasympathetic division: calming Level of arousal for optimal performance varies depending on the difficulty of a task Difficult tasks: better performance at low arousal Easy tasks: better performance at high arousal because of encouragement Various studies show that people tend to notice threatening faces quicker than happy ones Gender and emotion: women express their happiness and fear more than men, but they express sadness about the same; women are more emotionally literate Introverts are better at reading others’ emotions; extraverts emotions are easier to read We are naturally afraid of some things like injuring ourselves but many fears are learned Amygdala regulates fear response; damage to this area affects detection and experience of fear In the long run, venting anger is not helpful in reducing negative affect, venting makes us even angrier than if we let the anger subside; instead wait it out, deal with it constructively, and forgive Factors associated to happiness: high self-esteem, optimism, being outgoing and agreeable, having close friendships or a satisfying marriage, having work and leisure that engage their skills, having a meaningful
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religious faith, sleeping well and exercising Factors not associated with happiness: age, gender, education level, parenthood, physical attractiveness
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