WED+10-04Post

WED+10-04Post - Environmental uncertainty Social...

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Environmental uncertainty Social relationships can be very important in mitigating the adverse impacts of flood, drought or other causes of low food production Groups must compete and cooperate Compete for access to water rights Cooperate in times on need One of the fundamental reasons for social organization is cooperation Mammoth hunting, crop harvest
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How do people claim land (or resources)? Most agriculturally based groups have clear rules that define rights to resources Private ownership Use defines ownership Group owns resource and you get access by being part of group Lineage (kin group) Community State Unfettered access
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How do people claim land (or resources)? Property rights by gender Costs of defending access vs. benefit of maintaining access Pokot, E. Africa Sorghum fields pastureland
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Private ownership Changes individuals relationship with group In group ownership, collective control Generally doesn’t allow for sale of land Engenders a sense of belonging Private ownership, land is transferable Workers generally don’t own land No economic rights to product Turns labor into a commodity Leads to increased urbanization and large labor pools (with associated unemployment) Basis of modern revolutions Mexico, China, Cuba, Russia, Algeria
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4 key themes in all cultures Control Degree of environmental manipulation Density Population density Complexity Degree of external control of individual actions Mobility Population movement for resources or economics
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9 key questions What is the basic division of labor? What is the importance of territoriality? What is the structure of kinship? How is social conflict resolved? What is the degree of social equality?
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9 key questions What are the religious beliefs and structures? What is the societies impact on its ecosystem? Is the society secure? Is the society prone to peace or war?
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Foraging
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Foraging The original subsistence pattern of humans Requires careful scheduling for seasonal resources Detailed environmental knowledge Useful species Landscape patterns Sophisticated processing techniques
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Foraging ___________________ may have been an outgrowth of sophisticated hunting and gathering techniques Foraging is relatively rare today Most extant foragers live in marginal environments No large sociopolitical structure Hard to defend land rights
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Modern foragers Not “living fossils”
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course ANTH 205 taught by Professor Alvard during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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WED+10-04Post - Environmental uncertainty Social...

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