Hunger - Motivation Theory: Motivation is directed-...

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Motivation Theory: Motivation is directed- motivation directs behavior General Theories I. Instinct a. Behavioral patterns that are innate- never learned b. Uniform in expression c. Universal in a species d. Is automatic, no thinking involved e. Involuntary ex: spider building a cocoon f. Problems i. Human behavior is much more diverse than instinct can cover ii. Cant empirically test it II. Drive Reduction theory a. Based on biological b. Primary goal is to reach and maintain homeostasis- can explain reactions to an imbalance c. A drive is created from the imbalance, drive is unpleasant psychological experience d. All motivative behavior in the service of drive reduction, includes learning,- behavior that reduce drives are likely to be repeated e. Seems to be testable f. Problems i. Sheffield’s horny rats: sexual behavior does not follow the pattern ii. Curiosity also increases drive iii. An imbalance does not necessarily have to exist for a drive to occur III. Arousal Theories a. Still based on biological perspective b. We are striving to maintain an optimal level of arousal
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c. Four sources of arousal i. Drives and incentives ii. Environment iii. Unexpected/ novel events iv. Drugs d. We are motivated to increase our arousal level when it is too low and decrease it when it’s too high e. Negative arousal is very motivating IV. Cognitive theories a. Based on the notion of incentives- external goals that have the capacity to draw you to them b. Expectancy-value theory-can’t always obtain your goals- look at how well you expect to obtain that goal, and must look at how much you value that goal I. Hunger a. Early research- Cannon and Washburn (1912)- thought hunger was function of stomach contractions- found and correlation between contractions and hunger b. Washburn swallows a balloon- reported feeling less hungry c. Problems: i. People without stomachs still report hunger ii. Rats with nerves severed- still ate normally II. The Brain- hypothalamus, two area connected to easting: a. Lateral hypothalamus (LH)- if stimulated animals will eat- if lesioned, the animal will ignore food b. Ventromedial Nucleus, of the hypothalamus (VNH) i. When stimulated, animals stop eating- ii. when stop stimulation, starts eating- iii. when lesioned will eat massive quantities. c. Problems: stimulating these areas lead to other changes as well
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d. Solution: i. Stimulation of LH produces generalized arousal ii. Stimulating VNH inhibits generalized arousal III. Blood: blood-glucose levels a. Original idea- high B.G.- should signal satiation- low B.G.- hungry b. Problem: diabetes- have increase B.G. but tend to eat a lot c. Mayer: said it was not the level, but the rate at which B.G was being used
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Hunger - Motivation Theory: Motivation is directed-...

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