Learning - Psych as a Natural Science Notes November 13,...

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Psych as a Natural Science Notes November 13, 2007 Jessica Hanke Learning I. Basics a. Definition: Any relatively permanent change in performance potential that is brought about by experience b. Types of Learning i. Associative learning: very basic form of learning which occurs when an individual makes a new association between two events. 1. Classical conditioning: 2. Operant Conditioning ii. Observational learning: learning by watching others iii. Cognitive learning: Mental abstractions, concept formation II. Classical Conditioning a. Who discovered and started research on Classical Conditioning? PAVLOV: Russian scientist who was interested in digestion. He was doing research on the digestion of dogs. He was studying the role of saliva in the digestion process. Noticed that after a few sessions, the simple arrival of the lab assistant stimulated drooling from the dog because the assistant was always the one who administered meat to the dog’s mouth. b. What did he discover? The Basics i. UCS UCR CS CR ii. UCS: unconditional stimulus iii. UCR: unconditional response iv. CS: conditional stimulus, initially it doesn’t produce any kind of response v. CR: conditioned response, highly similar to the unconditional response, although in most cases they are not completely identical. vi. EXAMPLES: Cats and dogs don’t normally come to the sound of a can opener but many cats and dogs begin to do so because they have learned that the sound of the can opening is associated with food for them. vii. Scientists have shown that classical conditioning can have an effect on attraction to people. Environment can have an effect on what people think of each other. c. Pairing of CS and the UCS: very important i. Inter-stimulus interval: need to look at the amount of time that occurs between the presentation of the CS and the UCS. You want to get them as close in time as possible. If you ring a bell and wait 45 minutes to put the food in your mouth, there will not be a reaction. ii. Types of pairing: in this case we will look at eye blink conditioning. 1. Simultaneous conditioning: turn on the conditional stimulus and unconditional stimulus at the same time and shut them off as the same time. 1
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Psych as a Natural Science Notes November 13, 2007 Jessica Hanke CS UCS 2. Delayed (Forward) Conditioning: Both of the stimuli are turned on. The conditional stimulus is turned on before the unconditional stimulus and then you turn them off. CS UCS 3. Trace conditioning: turn conditional on before unconditional but you shut it off before you shut of the unconditional. CS UCS 4. Backwards: turn unconditional on and off first and then turn conditional on and off. CS UCS iii. Most effective: Which is going to produce the association between the unconditional and conditional stimulus? 1.
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYCH 202 taught by Professor Nezlek during the Fall '08 term at William & Mary.

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Learning - Psych as a Natural Science Notes November 13,...

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