Methamphetamine - IV. Purpose of Sleep Evolutionary...

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IV. Purpose of Sleep A. Evolutionary perspective: sleep for practical reason 1. Evolved to keep us quiet at night: keeps us out of the way of predators B. Sleep deprivation: 1. Abruptly reduce the amount of sleep a person is allowed to have a) Irritability, fatigue, lapses in attention, generally speaking mentally inefficient, less sociable, not a lot of physical consequences “hat band” pressure b) Typical reaction: fall asleep quicker the next night 2. Gradual reduction over a two month period a) No detectable effects over the short run 3. No sleep a) Similar problems as sleep deprivation b) Rare occasion of hallucinations C. REM deprivation: participants come into sleep lab, are allowed to sleep but are awakened during REM 1. 2 hours 2. REM rebound D. What exactly does REM sleep do for us? 1. Important for learning consolidation: consolidating what you have learned during the day into memory 2. Ach: when we REM, there is activity in the brain. Idea here is that Ach activity is the mechanism by which REM sleep allows us to consolidate what you have learned during the day into memory. V. Developmental Differences a. Overall sleep: infants usually spend more time sleeping 16-18 hours. The amount of sleep needed reduces throughout childhood but we see an increase post-puberty. As you get into the elderly years, sleep is variable. Some sleep more or less than others b. C hanges is REM sleep: some evidence that even fetus’s do experience REM sleep. Infants spend about 50% of their sleep in REM. Could be because there is so much learning going on at this time. Amount of sleep time decreases with age so that down to the first year, REM is down to 30%. Adults spend about 25% of sleep time in REM. In elderly years, REM stays constant but we do see a reduction in stage 4 sleep. VI. Sleeping disorders a. Insomnia: inability to sleep or remain asleep i. Situational: because of some stress or crisis occurring in somebody’s life. Once stresser is over, the sleep difficulty disappears as well ii. Benign/ Pseudo-insomnia: a person complains of a lack of sleep but is actually sleeping well within the normal range of time. You are getting a normal amount of sleep but you don’t think you are. The most common form of insomnia. In one study, people who identify themselves as insomniacs, went into a sleep lab and their sleep was evaluated- only half of them were awake more than 30 minutes during the night. 1. Whats going on? a. They don’t remember going to sleep, but remember being awake
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b. Best treated with proof of sleep or a sugar pill. iii. Arrhythmic Insomnia: comes from the interruption of circadian rhythm: Once the new time zone is adjusted to, sleep goes back to normal iv. Drug-related Insomnias: regular use of most psycho-active drugs tend to interfere with sleep and particularly interfere with the deeper stages of sleep and REM sleep. Particularly a problem with old styles of sleeping pills which were sedatives- experienced less deep sleep and REM which made them still tired
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Methamphetamine - IV. Purpose of Sleep Evolutionary...

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