Psych2 - September 6, 2007 CHAPTER 2 Research Methods 1)...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: September 6, 2007 CHAPTER 2 Research Methods 1) Tuesdays Material 2) Causation a) Three criteria that must be met before we can say that something causes something i) Correlation: the two variables are at least related in some way ii) Temporal Order: the cause must precede the effect in time- can be difficult to establish for two reasons (1) Amount of time that occurs between the cause and effect (so short, to naked eye it looks to happen simultaneously or so long that we dont even recognize the relationship) (2) Reciprocal causation: x causes changes in y which in turn causes changes in x. ex: donations to athletic teams and athletic performance. If you invest in a teams athletic gear, the team may improve. Then if the team improves, more many can be invested. (Chicken and Egg joke here) iii) Absence of rival explanations: must rule out any plausible alternative explanations for why the two variables might be behaving in the manner that they are b) The True Experiment: manipulate a variable to see what changes subsequently occur in the other variable i) Rationale: if a causes B then changes in A should be associated with specifiable changes in B. ii) How: there are two variables to consider (1) Independent variable (IV): The variable that the experimenter believes to be the cause. So it is the variable that the experimenter manipulates or changes in order to observe the (2) Dependant variable (DV): theoretical effect, the variable that you think is going to change due to manipulating the IV (to remember the Dependant variable DEPENDS on the Independent Variable). (a) EXAMPLES: (i) Effects of alcohol consumption on reaction time. 1. IV: Alcohol consumption 2. DV: Reaction Time (ii) Effects of food consumption on memory 1. IV: Food consumption 2. DV: Memory (iii)The effects of flirting on work productivity and success 1. IV: Flirting in the work place 2. DV: Job success iii) Design Experiment (1) Experimental condition: subjects exposed to the IV. In the case of the effect of food on memories, the subjects will be given food. (2) Control Condition: group of people who are not exposed to the independent variable, or 0 levels of the independent variable. The people in the food/memory experiment would not be given anything to eat (3) More conditions: (experimental)- could be given more or different foods ore both (4) Placebo iv) Measure our DV (1) In food/memory example: administer a test and see which group does better BUT you must give everybody the SAME EXACT test (2) Then use statistics to determine the differences between the control and experimental conditions (a) Control: Mean = 2.3 (b) Exp 1: Mean= 4.7 (c) Exp 2: Mean= 7.2 (3) Assuming that this is NOT a confounding experiment, one could assume (although incorrectly) that eating more food has a better effect on memory v) Interpreting Results (1) Focus on Control: make sure that nothing other than the IV could cause the differences in the data (2) Situation variables: want to make sure that the situation in which the...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYCH 202 taught by Professor Nezlek during the Fall '08 term at William & Mary.

Page1 / 12

Psych2 - September 6, 2007 CHAPTER 2 Research Methods 1)...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online