History 2055 - First D A.A diversity of Cultures I...

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First D A.A diversity of Cultures I. Discovery of America A number of people came over the “Bering Land Bridge”. Known as Paleo-Indians, Na Denes, and Eskimos. Were mostly hunters and nomadic people. As ice thawed from ice age, people made their way eastward following animals (food). Between 8,000 and 5,000 people began to cultivate crops, so they didn’t have to move much. Civilizations began because of population growth, and a stable food source. - Mexico/Guatemala- Mayans Aztecs conquered the Mayans and they built the city of Mexico City. B.The Myth of Virgin Land They believed that the land (America) was completely unsettles and untouched C.Characteristics of Native Americans on the Eve of European Contact
Societies were stable significantly involved in agriculture and trade network Diversity of language, education, religious traditions and beliefs Some societies had more gender equality II.Forces Encouraging European Exploration Middle Ages- 500-1400 Feudalism was main economic system (Europe) Nobles (Manor Lords) at the top- Owned large estates Surfs- worked for the nobles (very close t slavery) - Surfs had to pledge allegiance to the Manor Lords A.Changing Population Pressures Great population increase caused displacement of Surfs Vikings- Around 800 Vikings controlled certain parts of Europe - Vikings were some of the first people to begin exploring North America B.Crusades, Commerce, and New Learning
Economic/Religious crusades took place as Vikings began to explore (Muslims, etc.) Trading took place between Muslims and Europe and Asia In 1096, religious Christians wanted to take over Jerusalem (Holy Land). Several crusades over the years Crusades failed through military, but were successful in -Gaining access to trading routes as far as the Far East Gained spices, preservatives, quilts, rugs, etc. Demands began to go up for these items Italian Merchants- took the lead in trade/ took advantage of situations Marco Polo- published stories of his travels and brought back many items Many became significantly wealthy Discovered ancient writings and texts Many teachings came to be which led to the Renaissance Printing Press was invented to deploy the teachings to many people Monarchs had the best chance to gain monetary success because they had money to do so Manor Lords stood in the way of monarchs to sell and bring their goods to market Kings and Queens wanted to consolidate Manor Lords’ power, so they, along with merchants formed armies to fight the nobilities C.The Rise of Nation States Monarchs sponsored expeditions Spain- Ferdinand and Isabella Portugal – John the 1 st England- Henry Tutor
IV.Explorers, Conquerers, and the Making of New Spain A. Early Exploration Main expeditions were to find new trade routes to the East (especially around Africa) Portugal was the first to do this and came back with many goods they could sell Spain (Ferdinand) came across Christopher Columbus, and

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