Bidgoli_Chpt14_Emerging_Trends_Technologies_and_Applications

Bidgoli_Chpt14_Emerging_Trends_Technologies_and_Applications...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: IS Development, Enterprise Systems, M88, and Emerging Trends Part 3 Chapter ’I 4 EMERGENG TPE TEC H N D G l ES , APPLlCATl his chapter discusses new trends in software and service distribution, including pull and push technologies and application service providers that provide software as a service {SaaS). You also learn about virtual reality components and applications, includ- ing CAVE, and see how virtual worlds are becoming a new platform for communication and collaboration. Next, you learn about radio frequency identification (RPID) and its uses before moving on to new trends in networking, including grid, utility, and cloud comput— ing. Finally, you get an overview of how nanotechnology is being used and future applications of this technology. learning outcomes Part 3: i5 Development, Enterprise Systems, M55. and Emerging Trends -.Trends in Software. and Service Distribution ecent trends in software and ser- vice distribution include pull and push technologies and application service providers, although pull technology has been around since the Web first began. Both are discussed in the following sections. 1.1 Poll and Push Technologies With pulitechnology, a user states a need before getting information, such as entering a URL in a Web browser l i l l i I i i i _ .,»..-..m to go to a certain Web site. However, for marketing certain products and services and providing custom- ized information, this technology isn’t adequate. People rarely request marketing information, for example. With push technology, or Webcasting, a Web server delivers information to users who have signed up for this service instead of waiting for user requests to send the informa- tion. Webcasting is supported by many Web browsers and is also available from vendors (described later in this section). With push technology, your favorite Web w V max ,x-Mws- We five-ff ‘ .. 3y; ontQcastirigja-Vg; gs’ muggy-21's - . “Mm. .. w. a. i‘ M newt. nformation tons rsiwbbhéiiesigrjfietfiupfor thi emge instead mos-e.” M‘s»; M.,;F¢“I“-:I&rx\wp« maw- . aitiri'gifrsiiiéérgremési‘sltoseod fli" ‘i W e t -‘ ‘ ' Qmwzw tiELchlVHCJ content can be updated in real time and sent to your desktop. Push technology can be effective for BZC and B2B marketing, too. For example, a car manufacturer can send the latest information on new models, prices, features, and other related information to all its deal- ers in real time. Network administrators also use push technology to have antivirus updates downloaded on employees’ workstations automatically. Push technology delivers content to users auto- matically at set intervals or when a new event occurs. For example, you often see notices such as “A newer version of Adobe Flash is available. Would you like to install it?” In this case, the vendor (Adobe) is pushing the updated product to you as soon as it’s available, which is the event triggering the push. Of course, this example assumes you have already downloaded a pre- vious version of Adobe Flash, by doing so, you have signed up for pushed updates. The same process applies to content updates such as news and movie releases. When users sign up, they specify what content they want (sports, stock prices, politics) and consent to the “push.” They can also specify how often the content should be pushed. For example, if y0u have subscribed to an online news service and have indicated that you are interested in the latest economic news on China, this online service will send you such news as soon as it becomes available and will do so in the future as well. You do not need to make any extra attempt. Push technology streamlines the process of users getting software updates and updated content. It ben- efits vendors, too, because by keeping in constant touch with users, they build customer loyalty. This benefit often outweighs the costs of adding servers and other technology resources needed to use push technology. Push technology also improves business relations and customer service because users get the information they need in a more timely fashion. Below are examples of push technology in action: - Research In Motion (RIM) offers a new BlackBerry push API {application programming interface) that will enable developers to push real-time content to BlackBerry smartphones. This allows developers to push content, as well as alerts, to BlackBerry smart- phone users. It includes news, weather, banking, medical, and games. 0 Microsoft Direct Push from ATSCT is another example which enables mobile professionals to stay connected to their Microsoft Outlook information while on the go. It helps users work more efficiently with full wireless synchronization of e-mail, calendar, contacts, and tasks on a Windows Mobile enabled smartphone. Users can receive and respond to e-mail quickly through a Microsoft Office Outlook Mobile interface. 1.2 Application Service Providers You learned about ISPs in Chapter 7, which provide access to the Internet for a fee. A more recent business model called application service providers (ASPs) pro- vides access to software or services for a fee. Software as a service (SaaS), or on-demand software, is a model for ASPs to deliver software to users for a fee; the software might be for temporary or long~term use. With this de- livery model, users don’t need to be concerned with new software versions and compatibility problems because the ASP offers the most recent version of the software. Users can also save all application data on the ASP’s server so that the software and data are portable. This flexibility is convenient for those who travel or work in different locations, but it can also create privacy and security issues. Saving data on the ASP’s servers instead of users’ own workstations might leave this data more exposed to theft or corruption by attackers. Here’s a simple example of how SaaS might work: Say you want to edit a document, Chapter14.doc, and you need word-processing software for this task. With SaaS, you don’t need the software installed on your computer. You simply access it from the SaaS provider site. You can then run the software from the provider’s server (and not take up your computing resources) or on your computer. The location of the Chapter14.doc file doesn’t matter. You make use of the provider’s SaaS service to edit the document, which stays on your hard drive (or wherever you had it stored—a flash drive, for example). The word- processing application isn’t stored on your computer, so the next time you access the word—processing software from the provider’s SaaS site you might get a newer ver~ sion of the word-processing software. SaaS deals only with software, not with data and document storage or with hardware resources, such as processing power and memory. The SaaS model can take several forms, such as the following: 0 Software services for general use, such as office suite packages 0 Offering a specific service, such as credit card processing - Offering a service in a vertical market, such as software solutions for doctors, accountants, and attorneys Generally, the advantages of outsourcing, such as being less expensive and delivering information more quickly, apply to the ASP model, too. However, ASPs have some specific advantages, including the following: 0 The customer doesn’t need to be concerned about whether software is current. 0 IS personnel time is freed up to focus on applica— tions, such as customer relationship management and financial information systems, that are more impor- tant strategically to the organization. 0 Software development costs are spread over several customers, so vendors can absorb some expenses of software development and develop more improved software. ' Software is kept up to date, based on users’ request. 0 The ASP contract guarantees a certain level of tech» nical support. 0 An organization’s software costs can be reduced to a predictable monthly fee. Some disadvantages of ASPs are as follows: Chapter T4. Emerging Trends, Technologies, and Applications 0 Generally, users must accept applications as provided by ASPs; they’re not customized for users’ needs. 0 Because the organization has less control over how applications are developed, there’s the risk that appli- cations might not fully meet the organization’s needs. - Integration with the customer’s other applications and systems might be challenging. Google, NetSuite, Inc., and Salesforce.com are three companies that offer software as a service. Google Apps ( ) is a service from Google with several Google products. It features several Web applications with similar functionality to traditional office suites, including: Gmail, Google Calendar, Talk, Docs and Sites. The Standard Edition is free. In addition, Basecamp (basecampbqrom) and Mint.com ( ) also offer SaaS. Basecamp is a web- based project collaboration tool that allows users to share files, meet deadlines, assign tasks, and receive feedback. Mint.com is a free web—based personal financial management service. SaaS is also common for human resources applications and has been used in ERP systems with vendors such as Workday ( €day.com). Virtual Reality he goal of virtual reality (VB) is to create an environment in which users can interact and participate as they do in the real world. Jaron Lanier, a pioneer scientist who later founded VPL Research, first coined the term “virtual reality.” VR technology uses computer-generated, three-dimen— sional images to create the illusion of interaction in a realuworld environment. It can be integrated with ste— reo sound and tactile sensations to give users the “feel” of being immersed in a three—dimensional real world. In VR terminology, the everyday physical world is referred to as an “information environment.” Before VR technology, three«dimensional objects were viewed in a two-dimensional computer environ- ment. Even the best graphics programs used a two- dimensional environment to illustrate a 3—D object. VR technology has added the third dimension so that users can interact with objects in a way that hasn’t been possible before. Thomas Furness, a notable VR pioneer, states, “The distinction between immersion in a VR world and analyzing the same information using blueprints, numbers, or text is the difference between looking at fish in an aquarium and putting on your scuba gear and diving in with them.”1 Virtual reality began with military flight simulations in the 19605, but these VR systems were rudimentary compared with today’s systems. In the 19903, Matsushita in Japan built a virtual kitchen that enabled customers to change fixtures and appliances and alter the design on a computer and then virtually walk around the kitchen space. A customer’s preferences could then become the blueprint for the kitchen’s final design. It was the firstVR system designed not for games, but for general public use. As you’re reading through the following sections, a review of these terms can be helpful: ' Simulation—Objects in an environment are emulated with texture and shading to give them a 3-D appear— ance. °_ interaction—A VR environment enables users to act on objects in it, such as using a data glove to pick up and move objects. 0 Immersion—This technology uses special hardware and software (such as a CAVE, discussed later in this section} to give users the feeling of being part of an environment. The real world surrounding the VR environment is blocked out so that users can focus their attention on the virtual environment. This feature was first used by the US. Air Force for training fighter pilots. ' Telepresence—This feature gives users the sense that they’re in another location, even one geographically far away, and can manipulate Objects as though they’re actually in that location. Telepresence systems use a variety of sophisticated hardware, discussed in “Components of a Virtual Reality System.” 0 Full-body immersion—This technology combines interactive environments with cameras, monitors, and other devices that allow users to move around freely. ° Networked communication—This technology allows connecting virtual worlds so that users in different locations can interact and manipulate the same world at the same time. 2.1 Types of Virtual Environments There are two major types of user environments in VR: egocentric and exocentric. In an egocentric environ- ment, the user is totally immersed in the VR world. The most common technology used with this environment is a head—mounted display (HMD). Another technol- ogy that uses lasers is a virtual retinal display (VRD). Exhibit 14.1 shows an example of these devices, discussed more in the next section. The exocentric environment can be called a “win- dow view”,- data is still rendered in 3—D, but users can © Sean Prior/Shulterstock Day View it onscreen They Can’t interact with objects: as in an egocentric environment. The main technofogy sed in this environment is 3—D graphics. .2 Components of a Virtual ’ Reality System The following are major components of a VR system: . Visual and aural systemskThese components are used to enable users to see and hear the virtual world. HMDs, mentioned earlier, contain two small TV screens, one in front of each eye, along with a magnifying lens to generate the View. Sensing devices on top of the helmet determine the orientation and position of the user’s head. The information is then transmitted to the computer, which generates two pictures so that each eye has a slightly different view, just as physical eyes see the world. HMDs can also incorporate stereo sound into a VR environment to make it more convincingly real. With VRDs, a very low-power laser beam carrying an image is projected onto the back of the user’s eyes. As with an HMD, users can move their heads in any direction, without losing sight of the image. we?!“ © DAJ/Getty Images " "- ~x§§$ Manual control for navigation—The m0st commonly used device is the data glove (see Exhibit 14.2). With Chapter 14: Emerging Trends, Technologies, and Applications it, users can point to, “grab,” and manipulate objects and experience limited tactile sensations, such as determining an object’s shape, size, and hardness or softness. A data glove can also be used as an input device, much like a mouse. Users can use a data glove with software to open a dialog box or pull down a menu, for example. A data glove is covered with optical sensors that send information to a computer that reconstructs the user’s movements graphically. The agent representing the user’s hand in ihe virtual world duplicates the user’s hand movements. Central coordinating processor and software system—This component generates and manipulates high-quality graphics in real time, so it needs a very fast processor. To display images in real time, 3~D image graphics must be rendered rapidly, and the screen’s refresh rate has to be extremely fast. Walker—This input device captures and records movement of the user’s feet as the user walks or turns in different directions. 2.3 CAVE A cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) is a vir- tual environment consisting of a cube-shaped room in which the walls are rear-projection screens. CAVEs are holographic devices that create, capture, and dis- play images in true 3-D form (see Exhibit 14.3). People can enter CAVEs in other locations, no matter how far away they are geographically. Multiple people in different CAVEs can interact, too. High-speed digital cameras capture one user’s presence and movements and then re—create and send these images to users in other CAVEs. In this way, people can carry on a conver- sation as though they’re all in the same room. . CAVES are used for research in many fields, includ- ing archaeology, architecture, engineering, geology, and physics. Some engineering companies use CAVES to im- prove product design and development. With a CAVE, they can create and test prototypes, develop interfaces, and simulate factory layouts and assembly lines, for example, without investing in physical equipment and layouts. Many universities, including Brown University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Duke University, use CAVES for geological research, architec- tural studies, and anatomy studies. old-Virtual Reality Applications I 'VR systems have been used in military flight simula- tions, in medicine for “bloodless” surgery, and in the ' entertainment industry. With further developments, VR '_ systems will one day be used for user interfaces in infor- mation systems. You might have seen an example of this use in the movie Minority Report, in which Tom Cruise uses a 3—D user interface to examine documents, graph- ics, and video files in crime reports. This technology is here and has been used in many real-life applications. VR systems can be used for many other business applications, too. For example, a VR system could be used for site selection when a company wants to open a new plant. A simulation model combined with VR capabilities would allow a virtual walk-through of the potential site, a more realistic view than is possible with maps and blueprints. The following are some current applications of VR systems: 0 Applications for the disabled—Virtual reality helps extend the capabilities of the disabled. For example, quadriplegics can use an HMD to get a 360-vievv of their surroundings, or people with cerebral palsy can learn how to operate a motorized wheelchair in a VR environment.2 - Architectural design—Architects and engineers use VR systems to create blueprints and build proto- types to show to clients. With a VR system, several versions of a design can be created to demonstrate to clients the outcome of modifying different factors. Architects and engineers can also use VR systems to test different conditions, such as wind shear, safely and without the expense of using physical materials. ' Education—VR systems are used in educational games and simulations, such as VR “flash cards” for teaching math skills. Incorporating visuals, sound, and touch into a game can help improve the learning process. For example, in a world geography class, a VR globe could be used with touch technology that displays different facts about a country—language, population, political system, and so forth—when a student touches it. 0 Flight simulation—Commercial airlines and the military have been using flight simulators for many years. Flight simulators are used for training pilots to Chapter I4: Emerging Trends, Technologies, and Applications handle new equipment or unusual operating condi- tions. Training in a VR environment is safer and less expensive than training on actual equipment. VR systems can also be used in videoconferencing and group support systems. Current technologies using TV screens can’t fully capture the sense of other people being physically present, and people can’t shake hands or engage in direct eye contact effectively. VR systems could help overcome these obstacles by giving participants the impression of being in the same room, which makes achievingtrue interaction more possible. With data gloves, they can even shake hands, although they might be thousands of miles apart physically. This scenario might sound like sci- ence fiction, but the technology already exists. It gives a new meaning to the old ATc‘ScT slogan “Reach out and touch someone.” 2.5 Obstacles in Using VR Systems One major obstacle to using VR technology is that not enough fiber-optic cables are currently available to car- ry the data transmissions needed for a VR environment capable of re—creating a conference. With people in dif~ ferent geographical locations, high—speed transmission capabiiities are necessary for participants to interact in real time. Without them, having to wait several seconds every time you want to act in a VR environment would be frustrating. ' VR systems have generated a lot of excitement in recent years, but the following problems must be solved before this technology’s potential can be realized:...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern