EDUC Notes - Chapter 1 Human Development Studying Change...

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-1 Chapter 1 Human Development Studying Ÿ Change Ÿ Constancy Throughout the life span Field of Human Dev. Scientific Applied Interdisciplinary - grows thru combined effort of ppl thru many fields (doctors, scientists, sociologists, psychiatrists) Theory - verifiable An orderly, integrated set of statements that Ÿ Describes Ÿ Explains Ÿ Predicts behavior Basic issues in Develop. 1. Continuous or discontinuous? 2. One course of development or many? 3. Nature or nurture? Basic Issues: Continuous or Discontinuous Continuous: smooth process from infancy to adulthood Discontinuous: stair steps. Reach a stage, stop, then move to next Contexts of development Ÿ Unique combinations of: Ÿ Genetics Ÿ Environment Ÿ Can result in diff paths of develop Nature vs. Nurture Nature: Ÿ Inborn, biological givens Ÿ Based on genetic inheritance Nurture: Ÿ Physical and social world Ÿ Influence biological and psychological development Stability and plasticity Stability: Ÿ Individuals high or low in a characteristic remain so at later ages Ÿ Early experience may have lifelong impact Plasticity: Ÿ Change is possible, based on experiences Development as a Dynamic System
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Ÿ Perpetually ongoing process Ÿ Conception to Death Ÿ Influences on development Ÿ Biological Ÿ Psychological Ÿ Social Lifespan Perspective Development as Ÿ Lifelong Ÿ Multidimensional (biological, social and personal influences) and multidirectional (growth and decline) Ÿ Highly plastic Ÿ Influenced by multiple forces (know the periods of development) Influences on Development Ÿ Age graded: expected to happen by certain age Ÿ History graded: unique to certain historical era Ÿ Nonnormative: irregular, unpredictable influence Resilience Ÿ The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development Ÿ Factors in resilience Ÿ Personal characteristics Ÿ Warm parental relationship Ÿ Social support outside family Ÿ Community resources and opportunities Philosophies of Childhood Ÿ Medieval: Contradictory beliefs about children’s basic nature Ÿ Puritan: Children as inherently evil and stubbors Ÿ Punitive approach to child-rearing Ÿ Locke (foreigner in theories of behavioralism): Tabula rasa Ÿ Children as blank slates shaped by experience Ÿ Development is continuous (by nurture) Ÿ Rousseau: Noble savages Ÿ Children as naturally healthy and moral Philosophies of Adulthood and Aging Ÿ Tetens Ÿ Origin and extent of individual differences Ÿ Change during adulthood-compensation for declines Ÿ Impact of historical era on life course Ÿ Carus Identified 4 periods of life Ÿ Childhood Ÿ Youth Ÿ Adulthood Ÿ Senescence Key Principles of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
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Natural Selection Ÿ Species have characteristics that are adapted - or fit - to their environments Survival of the Fittest Ÿ Individuals best adapted to their environments survive to reproduce. Ÿ
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course EDUC 2204 taught by Professor Cattage during the Summer '07 term at Kennesaw.

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EDUC Notes - Chapter 1 Human Development Studying Change...

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