US HISTORY 102 Midterm Study Guide

US HISTORY 102 Midterm Study Guide - US HISTORY 102 Midterm...

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US HISTORY 102 Midterm Study Guide Identifications: Fourteenth Amendment: (1868) this amendment to the Constitution granted citizenship to African Americans, due process before the law, equal protection before the law. It also stipulated that Southern States would have their representation in Congress reduced if they denied any eligible citizen the right to vote, barred from office seeking former leaders of the Confederacy, and declared the public debt of the Confederacy invalid. It has been the basis for the assertion of most civil rights claims since then. Scalawags White southerners who supported the Union during the Civil War or the Republican Party and Reconstruction after the war. Often upcountry and poor whites. Freedman’s bureau Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care and landowning. Abolished with the end of Congressional Reconstruction in 1877. Black Codes : Series of post civil war laws establishing second class status for freed people. Laws excluded blacks from juries and voting, prevented them from testifying against whites in courts and restricted their rights to marry, work, and travel. Homestead Act of 1862 law passed by Congress to encourage westward settlement. Awarded homesteaders 160 acres of land if they could demonstrate improvement over the course of five years – clearing, settling the land. Helped facilitate westward expansion Dawes Act – law passed by Congress breaking up Indian reservations into individual parcels, making individual Native Americans landowners. Effort to break up communal land holding patterns. Gospel of Wealth Andrew Carnegie’s attempted justification for class and income inequality in gilded age. Argued wealthy were so because of natural selection, but that had obligation to use wealth to benefit public good. Andrew Carnegie Scottish immigrant who founded Carnegie Steel (later U.S. Steel). Pioneered the practice of vertical integration of industry as he achieved monopoly control of steel. Advocate of the gospel of wealth. Social Darwinism : application of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to society; used the concept of the survival of the fittest to justify racial, class distinctions and to explain poverty as natural and just. Populist Party : Founded in 1892, it advocated a variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, and regulation of railroads and direct election of senators. Rooted in rural areas, Midwest, William Jennings Bryan Cross of Gold Speech, reflected opposition to rising power of corporations
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Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): halted Chinese immigration to the U.S. expression of nativism and xenophobia, fears of Asian immigration, especially in the West where Chinese labor had helped build the railroads. Booker T. Washington:
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US HISTORY 102 Midterm Study Guide - US HISTORY 102 Midterm...

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