Theory 2 components: data explanation of relationships theory- proposed relationship between to explain social phenomena Structural-Functional Approach Created by Auguste Comte(coined the term sociology), Emile Durkeim(focused on social facts), Herbert Spencer(focused on survival of the fittest) Macro-sociology – focuses on society all about order all members taught to follow the same order focuses on manifest and latent functions (M-intended function of an institution)(L- unintended) Social-Conflict Approach Karl Marx Groups are engaged in a continuous power struggle for resources Protect property and status from the rich to the poor Focus on conflict in major expectation Tough on the poor and easy on the rich Symbolic-Interaction Approach Max Weber – one of the founding fathers; we see the world as others see it George Herbert Mead Micro-sociology – focusing on the individual Focuses on social interaction – immediate reciprocation [social-exchange theory] An Introduction to Theory in Sociology Source: John J. Macionis’ Society the Basics , 12 th edition via Boundless.com Summary: Social theories draw the connections between seemingly disparate concepts in order to help us understand the world around us.
KEY POINTS Theories have two components: data, and and the explanation of relationships between concepts that are measured by the data. A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts, often cause and effect. Sociologists develop theories to explain social phenomena. Sociological theory is developed at multiple levels, ranging from grand theory to highly contextualized and specific micro-range theories. KEY TERMS Anomie Alienation or social instability caused by erosion of standards and values. Sociological Theory A theory is a statement as to how and why particular facts are related. In sociology, sociological perspectives, theories, or paradigms are complex theoretical and methodological frameworks, used to analyze and explain objects of social study, and facilitate organizing sociological knowledge. Cause And Effect Cause and effect (also written as cause-effect or cause/effect) refers to the philosophical concept of causality, in which an action or event will produce a certain response to the action in the form of another event. Introduction Sociologists develop theories to explain social phenomena. A theory is proposed relationship between two or more concepts. In
other words, a theory is an explanation for why a phenomenon occurs. Sociological theory is developed at multiple levels, ranging from grand theory to highly contextualized and specific micro-range theories. There are many middle-range and micro-range theories in sociology. Because such theories are dependent on context and specific to certain situations, it is beyond the scope of this text to explore each of those theories.
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