chp6 - Michael Mann PSY2012 Chapter 6 Outline Memory I Memory*memory an active system that receives information from the senses organized and alters it

chp6 - Michael Mann PSY2012 Chapter 6 Outline Memory I...

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Michael Mann PSY2012 February 25, 2008 Chapter 6 Outline: Memory I. Memory *memory- an active system that receives information from the senses, organized and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage A. Putting it in: encoding * encoding- the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems. * one source is rehearsing information * another source is elaborate rehearsing B. Keeping it in: Storage * storage- holing onto information for some period of time * three stages: sensory memory, short-term, and long-term C. Getting it out: Retrieval * retrieval- getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used II. Models of Memory * two models of memory: information processing model and parallel distributed processing (PDP) Model * information-processing model - model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three states A. Levels of processing model *levels of processing model- model of memory that assumes information that is more "deeply processsed" or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of word of words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time. * focus on deeper levels of information rather than "looks" B. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model *PDP- a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections. * allows one to retrieve many different aspects of a memory III. The Information - Processing Model: The Three Stages of Memory A. Sensory memory: Why do people do double takes? 1. Description *sensory memory- the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems. * two kinds- iconic (visual) and echoic (hearing) 2. iconic sensory memory *visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second *several classic experiments by George Sperling in 1960
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a. capacity of iconic memory *tested with a method know as partial report method *capacity is everything that can be seen at one time b. duration of iconic memory *only a quarter of a second can be kept in memory * eidetic imagery- the ability to acess a visual memory for 30 seconds or more c. function of iconic memory *helps the visual system to view surroundings as a continuous and stable in spite of these saccadic movements *allows enough time for the brain stem to decide if the information is important if for storing 3. echoic sensory memory *the brief memory of something a person has just heard a. capacity of iconic memory *limited to what can be heard at any one moment * b. duration of iconic memory * longer than iconic memory * about 2 to 4 seconds B. Shot-term (working) Memory * short-term memory (STM) (working memory)- the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used
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