chp9 - Michael Mann PSY2012 March 3, 2008 Chapter 9 Outline...

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Michael Mann PSY2012 March 3, 2008 Chapter 9 Outline I. Approaches to Understanding Motivation * motivation- the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met *extrinsic motivation - type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person A. Instinct approaches * instincts - the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals * instinct approach - approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals B. Drive reduction approaches * drive - a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension * need - a requirement of some material (i.e., food, water) that is essential for survival of the organism * drive-reduction theory - approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. *primary drives - those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst. * acquired (secondary) drives - those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval. *homeostasis - the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state 1. Different strokes for different folks: needs a. Need for achievement: how to succeed by excelling at everything * need for achievement (nAch) - a need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones * Look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them and need feedback about their performance, in order to acheive their goals b. Carol Dweck's self-theory of motivation * the need for achievement has a strong correlation with one's self-image.
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* closely related to locus of control * locus of control - external and internal forces are at play. External meaning you have no control and internal mean you have
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chp9 - Michael Mann PSY2012 March 3, 2008 Chapter 9 Outline...

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