Neolithic_Period_rtf - of...

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Neolithic (New Stone Age) 8,000-4,000 B.C.E. The Neolithic Period began shortly after the Mesolithic (transitional) Period (10,00-8,000 B.C.E.) [In the Mesolithic Period , early humans made the transition from nomadic lives of hunting and gathering, to herding and farming.] Architecture : e Neolithic dwellings were often mud-and-limestone huts. hBurial sites were marked with megaliths (“great stones”) eDolmen were upright megaliths topped by capstones ePost-and-lintel construction consisted of upright stones hconnected by horizontal slabs at the top. hA stele is an upright monolith used as a marker or monument Stonehenge : e was a ritual site, probably used as a huge calendar, in Southern England to mark the seasons—equinoxes and solstices. hwas a circle of 20-foot-tall megaliths, some weighing 25 tons, quarried from 20 miles away, and shaped, without metal tools, to form a huge outer circle of movable stones and a giant horseshoe
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Unformatted text preview: of post-and-lintel (sarsen-and-capstone) constructions. ha single stele, known as the “heelstone,” was used to measure the variance in the positions of the sun’s rising throughout the year. The Birth of Civilization (ca. 4000 B.C.E.) – Neolithic Developments : eFirst division of labor and specialization of labor eInvention of the wheel, plow, and the solar calendar eArtificial systems of irrigation and large-scale farming required a higher degree of communal organization h Writing invented 3100 B.C.-- the pictograph (picture symbols), followed by cuneiform (wedge-shaped writing in Sumer), and hieroglyphs (“sacred signs”) in Egypt (later decoded through the Rosetta Stone now in the British Museum). Belief in animism – belief that nature is inhabited by living spirits...
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