Slater, HIST116 Exam 1 - Hist-116 Exam 1 Review Voltaire 18th century French Aristocrat o Got away with bad behavior mocking because of his status as an

Slater, HIST116 Exam 1 - Hist-116 Exam 1 Review Voltaire...

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Hist-116 Exam 1 Review Voltaire 18 th century French Aristocrat o Got away with “bad behavior” & mocking because of his status as an aristocrat Enlightenment thinker/philosophe o Radical Focused on religion o Deist Believed that God existed but did not play a role in day to day life Attacked the role of Catholicism in France A Treatise on Toleration , 1763 Satirical o Used satire to mock Rousseau Candide Jean Jacques Rousseau 18 th century Born in Geneva Enlightenment thinker/philosophe in France Focused on government o The Social Contract , 1762 General will = common good Popular sovereignty = idea that government power derives from the people Communitarian o The needs of the community over the needs of the individual Believed in “tabula rosa” (blank slate) o People are all born good (or with the potential to be good) o People are shaped by the world Deist Natural Rights John Locke 17 th century British Enlightenment thinker/philosophe o Major philosopher in American Revolution Jefferson used his ideas in Declaration of Independence “Life, liberty and property” (see below, re: property) Focused on property o Believed that property validates civil rights
o Elitist view on property/civil rights Only landholders should be involved in government Similar to Jefferson’s (overruled) opinion during the formation of American government that only landowners should vote Second Treatise on Civil Government: a Vindication for the Glorious Revolution , 1690 o Government = agreement between the governors and the governed The governed submit to authority in exchanged for protection of life liberty and property by the governors o “Political or civil society” = exists where any number of people unite into one society and each individual resigns to the public his executive power of the law of nature o Attacks absolute monarchy Claims it is inconsistent with civil society because there is no known authority to which everyone in the society may appeal upon injury or controversy Marquis de Sade and Libertinism Libertine = man who sexually preys upon women Marquis de Sade o French nobleman o Wrote & illustrated extremely graphic pornography No respect for religion o Sadism = tendency to derive pleasure from inflicting pain, suffering, or humiliation upon others Middle Passage Voyage from Africa to America Part of Triangle Trade o Raw materials from America to Europe o Manufactured goods from Europe to Africa o Slaves from Africa to America Trade and Navigation Acts Prevent trade… o With other countries (besides England) o Between the colonies Declaration of Independence Written by “Committee of Five” o Thomas Jefferson (main author) o John Adams o Benjamin Franklin o Robert Livingston o Roger Sherman
Attack on King George Published July 2 & accessible to public July 4, 1776

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