Slater, HIST116 Exam 1 - Hist-116 Exam 1 Review Voltaire...

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Hist-116 Exam 1 ReviewVoltaire18thcenturyFrenchAristocratoGot away with “bad behavior” & mocking because of his status as an aristocratEnlightenment thinker/philosopheoRadicalFocused on religionoDeistBelieved that God existed but did not play a role in day to day lifeAttacked the role of Catholicism in FranceA Treatise on Toleration, 1763SatiricaloUsed satire to mock RousseauCandideJean Jacques Rousseau18thcenturyBorn in GenevaEnlightenment thinker/philosophe in FranceFocused on governmentoThe Social Contract, 1762General will = common goodPopular sovereignty = idea that government power derives from the peopleCommunitarianoThe needs of the community over the needs of the individualBelieved in “tabula rosa” (blank slate)oPeople are all born good (or with the potential to be good)oPeople are shaped by the worldDeistNatural RightsJohn Locke17thcenturyBritishEnlightenment thinker/philosopheoMajor philosopher in American RevolutionJefferson used his ideas inDeclaration of Independence“Life, liberty and property” (see below, re: property)Focused on propertyoBelieved that property validates civil rights
oElitist view on property/civil rightsOnly landholders should be involved in governmentSimilar to Jefferson’s (overruled) opinion during the formation ofAmerican government that only landowners should voteSecond Treatise on Civil Government: a Vindication for the Glorious Revolution, 1690oGovernment = agreement between the governors and the governedThe governed submit to authority in exchanged for protection of lifeliberty and property by the governorso“Political or civil society” = exists where any number of people unite into onesociety and each individual resigns to the public his executive power of the law ofnatureoAttacks absolute monarchyClaims it is inconsistent with civil society because there is no knownauthority to which everyone in the society may appeal upon injury orcontroversyMarquis de Sade and LibertinismLibertine = man who sexually preys upon womenMarquis de SadeoFrench noblemanoWrote & illustrated extremely graphic pornographyNo respect for religionoSadism = tendency to derive pleasure from inflicting pain, suffering, orhumiliation upon othersMiddle PassageVoyage from Africa to AmericaPart of Triangle TradeoRaw materials from America to EuropeoManufactured goods from Europe to AfricaoSlaves from Africa to AmericaTrade and Navigation ActsPrevent trade…oWith other countries (besides England)oBetween the coloniesDeclaration of IndependenceWritten by “Committee of Five”oThomas Jefferson (main author)oJohn AdamsoBenjamin FranklinoRobert LivingstonoRoger Sherman
Attack on King GeorgePublished July 2 & accessible to public July 4, 1776

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Term
Fall
Professor
Finefrock,M
Tags
Candide, French Revolution, Voltaire, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI of France, King Louis XVI

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