Gods, Rulers, and the Social Order
Egypt emerged along the bank of the 4,00-mile-long Nile River before 3150 B.C.E.
EEgypt was called by Greek historian Herodotus, “
the gift of the Nile” because of the
annual overflow of the Nile every 365 days—the source of Egypt’s solar calendar
Unified under a sole ruler ca. 3150 B.C.E.
ERelatively invulnerable to invasion because surrounded by sea and desert.
The people shared a common language
The people shared a common world view
Egyptians had a uniform political, religious, and cultural life
The Gods of Egypt
The Sun God
Though Egypt was
, its main god was the
described the origins of the world as a flat platter floating on
the waters of the underworld.
From a mound of silt deposited by the Nile arose
the Sun God from whom all other gods were made.
Osiris, God of the Underworld
, associated with the Nile, was killed by his evil brother,
his body chopped into pieces and scatter over the earth.
, wife of Osiris, gather up the pieces of his body and restored Osiris to life.
EIsis and Osiris produced a son,
, the sky-god
depicted as a falcon
defeated Set and became ruler of Egypt.
EUltimately, Egyptian religion celebrated some 2,000 gods and placed great
emphasis on the concept of
Rulers of Ancient Egypt
EEgypt was first united ca. 3150 B.C.E. under
first pharaoh or
(sometimes known as
EFor about 2500 years Egypt was ruled by some 20 dynasties (ruling families):