Soc 2206 Chapter 2 Theory and methods are key to social scienes Aggregates are collection of many individuals, cases, or other units. Social theories don’t explain why a certain individual will do something but more why patterns of people do things. EX. Sister and female nurses Social theory – defined as a system of interconnected abstractions or ideas that condense and organize knowledge about social world. Macrosocial theory – social theories and explanations about abstract, larde and broad . aspects of social reality such as social change in major institutions Microsocial – concrete small scale narroe level of reality, such as face to face interaction, during a 2 month period Mesosocial – middle level of social reality, between a broad and narrow scope, operation of social organizations, communitites, over 5 year Agency and Structure Agency refers to the individual’s ability to act and make independent choicesc Structure – aspects of the social landscape that appear to limit or influence The choices made by individual. The debate is what take priority? Individual or socialization. Ontology and epistemology 2 major philosophical assumptions about the assumptions about nature of social research from researchers. Ontology – relates to social theory has to do with how we understand the nature of reality. It is One view says individuals constructs their views the other is that the social reality already exists out there. epidtemology– branch of philosophy that studies knowledge, including how we pursue it . There is positivism and it says the social world should be studied like the scientific world. Interpretivism argues that they are separate, 2 major Paradigms Paradigm is an integrated set of assumptions, and beliefs on doing good research. It is a general framework for collecting info on social theories and empirical. After the paradigm is established we will accumulate knowledge. Positivism is the most widely practiced social science approach especially in north America. It sees social research as fundamentally the same as natural science research, it assumes that social reality is mad up of objective facts. Puts a huge emphasis on replication: the principle that researchers must be able to repeat scientific findings in multiple studies to ensure high level of confidence
If a researcher repeats a study and results are not accuracte it could be 1. initial study was fluke 2. significant conditions were present in the first and not in second (but know one knew) 3. either study was sloppy 4. improperly conducted 5. repeat study was unusual fluke positivism is a nomothetic approach which means explanations use law or law like ideally wish to develop causal law or principle next get empiracl evidence interpretive approach also scientific but says studying humans is a completely different type of science study, creating a special type of science for humans . people react and behave based on their beliefs, don’t adopt nomothetic approacj but instead favour and ideographic form
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- Fall '15
- Sociology, Qualitative Research, researcher