Chapter 14 - Host-Microbe Interactions Chapter 14 Pathogen...

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Host-Microbe Interactions Chapter 14
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Pathogen Pathogenicity Primary vs. opportunistic Virulence Pathogenesis Pathology
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Contamination Infection vs. Infestation Disease Etiology
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Anatomical Barriers as Ecosystem Skin and mucous membranes are physical barriers to infection May supply foundation for microbial ecosystem
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Humans are usually sterile in utero but after birth, microbial populations begin to establish themselves Normal flora populations of microbes found on the body of healthy individual Resident flora inhabits body for extended periods Transient flora Temporary form associations for a short time and are replaced
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Isolated colonies in specific body regions Dominant type of organism may change with age and situation
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Factors that influence distribution of Flora: Nutrient availability, salinity, oxygen availability, host defenses and mechanical factors
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Microbial community may offer protection from disease-causing organisms May prevent the overgrowth of harmful microbes microbial antagonism Competitive exclusion » out compete or create hostile environments Bacteriocins » Chemicals that inhibit the growth of similar organisms
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Symbiotic relationships form between microorganism and host Relationships may change depending on state of host and attributes of microbes
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Mutualism (++) both partners benefit Intestinal bacteria and synthesis of vitamins K and B Commensalisms (+ neutral) one partner benefits and other is unharmed Flora living on skin and conjunctiva Parasitism (+-) microbe benefits at expense of host Pathogenic infection
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State of host resistance usually determines extent of infection primary infection secondary infection Sub-clinical infection Pathogenicity
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Opportunistic Pathogens Ordinarily do not cause disease E. coli is normally harmless in the colon Pathogenic if it enters other body sites AIDS causes immunosuppression which leads to secondary infections that can be fatal Pneumocystis pneumonia Wound infections Broken or damaged skin provides a portal of entry
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Many people can be carriers of pathogens Viruses; Neisseria; Salmonella; Streptococcus Why are they not affected? Genetics Predisposing factors
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People are affected by disease in different ways Predisposing factors: gender genetic background climate and weather inadequate nutrition age habits and lifestyle chemotherapy emotional disturbances
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Classification of Diseases 1. Inherited 2. Congenital 3. Degenerative 4. Nutritional deficiency 5. Endocrine 6. Mental 7. Immunological 8. Neoplastic 9. Iatrogenic 10. Idiopathic
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